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About chronology of Christianization of the Carpathian Slavs



maksy ZhIH

About CHRONOLOGY of CHRISTIANIZATION of the CARPATHIAN SLAVS

From the middle of the I millennium AD and up to Old Russian times the main population of Prikarpatye were horvaty1. About it we know as from "The story of temporary years" 2, fixing Croats of the X century in Prikarpatye, and from the story in the composition of the Byzantine emperor Konstantin Bagryanorodny (945-959) "About management of the empire" (948-952) in which resettlement horvatov3 is quite in detail described. In the middle of the 6th century the Croats created the considerable ethnopolitical union which Konstantin Bagryanorodny calls Great Horvatiya4. These its data in a historiography repeatedly were exposed kritike5 which, however, is deprived any serious osnovaniy6. In the middle of the 6th century as a result of Avarian nashestviya7 Great Croatia broke up. A part of Croats migrates to Dalmatia where creates the state of Croatia subsequently, other part - to Poland and Chekhiyu8 where Croats could not keep the ethnocultural unity and were a part of drevnecheshsky and drevnepolsky nationalities over time, and the third part remains on the place, in Prikarpatye where could keep the domination up to the end of the I millennium AD 9

As it became known thanks to archeological excavations, in Prikarpatye there was a large pagan Slavic religious center with ancient settlements sanctuaries Bogit, Zvenigorod and Govda10 with whom is osnovaniya11 to connect the well-known story al-Masudi about Slavic pagan temples:

The description of the temples esteemed the expert-sakaliba.

First temple. In the countries the expert-sakaliba there were temples which they read. From them there was one temple on the mountain about which philosophers said that it is considered one of high mountains of the world. Also there are mentions of the system of the structure of this temple, both the system of arrangement of types of its stones, and its various flowers, and the idols made for this temple (in it at height, and these made idols from sunrise are visible) and that is in it from jewelry and the drawn traces in it which indicate going beings, and these jewelry symbolized predictions of some events before their fulfillment. And from height it was heard by visitors sounds and that happened to them during listening of it.

Second temple. And the temple which was built by some of their tsars on the black mountain which is surrounded by the surprising water possessing in different flowers and the taste bringing benefit. Also they had a huge idol representing (standing) bent person, and he is an old man, and in a hand his stick which it moves bones of the dead from tombs. And under the right leg of its image of various ants, and under the second the black ravens similar on gu-daf (the kind of ravens similar to an eagle), and others, and the surprising image of different types of Blacks (Akhabish and Zundzh).

Third temple. And other temple on the mountain at them surrounded with the gulf of the sea. It is constructed of stones of red pearls and of stones of a green emerald. In its center a huge cube under which a huge idol, and his body is constructed of four jewelry: green emerald, red Yakut, chalcedony yellow and white glass. And his head from red gold. And near it other idol representing the slave. And people made it a sacrifice and smoked smoke. And this temple is carried to one wise person who they had in the ancient time. And we mentioned it and that to it there was in the earth an expert-sakaliba and that at them made of inventions and focuses and supernatural things by means of which it attracted their hearts, and owned their souls, and dominated over their minds though the expert-sakaliba were the known cruel behavior and changeability of moods as we mentioned it in ours knigakh12.

The first stage of penetration into the region of Christianity is connected with Great Moravia which influence extended to the western part of Prikarpatye. The point of view based on Carpatho-Russian traditsii13 according to which the Christianity was brought to Saints of Mefodiyem14 here for what, however, there are no sufficient bases as neither in its life, nor in any other authentic sources of data on it net15 is widespread in a historiography. But, nevertheless, the archeology demonstrates that the first stage of penetration of Christianity into Prikarpatye is connected with the Moravian influence - in the second half of the 9th century the Christian burials similar moravskim16 appear here. It, probably, also explains the tradition noted above connecting Christianization of Prikarpatye with activity of the Saint Mefodiy preaching in Moravia. Perhaps, his pupils also brought Christianity here.

In this regard the bull of the Pope Ioann XIII dated 967 g about the statement of the Prague episcopacy at church draws to itself attention St. Vit and monastery a benediktinok at church St. Geor-

Giya which contains the instruction on the fact that the church service should not be carried out at all "on a ceremony of the Bulgarian people, or Russian or in Slavic language, but according to papal establishments and orders... the clergyman who is well trained in Latin" 17. According to B.Ya. Romm, "the policy of the Roman curia hostile to Bulgaria and Russia found reflection in these words. Creation of the Prague episcopacy and planting of monasteries with Latin clergy was understood in Rome as an important step in fight for the statement of papacy in the Slavic countries and final destruction of the local features of a church service which remained from times ki-rillo-mefodiyevskoy traditions. At the same time this bull serves also as the direct evidence of existence of Christianity in Russia and church services in Russian in 20 years prior to official adoption of Christianity at Vladimir. This circumstance confirms once again that distribution of Christianity in Russia was long process" 18. M.K. Yurasov, developing these observations of B.Ya. Romm, believes that "if to recognize authenticity of the considered bull, then B.Ya. Romm's comment in general is right, however the historian did not pay attention to one important point: the Pope was afraid of a church service on the Russian ceremony in Prague (!). The fact that it already existed in Kiev could hardly disturb Ioann XIII as it had no spiritual power over "mother of the cities of Russians". No political impact of Russia to the Czech Republic at that time also existed, and supreme authority in Kiev, except for a small circle of followers of the princess Olga, remained pagan. Therefore Ioann XIII's fears concerning distribution in the Czech Republic of a church service on the Russian ceremony look at least strange and unclear" 19. Further the scientist states the assumption according to which "all this dissipates if to assume that the danger for "латинян" in this case came not from Kiev, and from ancestors of modern Russinians who were baptized St. Mefodiy or his pupils and managed to develop to the middle of the X century own ceremony of a church service in the native language. Besides that they lived in the Carpathian basin and directly adjoined to Czechs, their main area of resettlement during St. Mefodiy's activity was depending on the Velikomoravsky power" 20. But, as the historian truly notices, in that case it is necessary to admit that fact that "and the name & #34 extended to this population (the population of Prikarpatye - M.Zh.); Русь"" 21. He tries to prove further such vyvod22. The question of distribution time for this region of the name "Russia" is very difficult. On the one hand, Croatia about which below at us the speech still will go only at the end of the X century gets under the power of Kiev therefore

would be logical to believe that exactly from now on the name "Russia" also extended to it especially as all sources describing this region in the IX-X centuries, do not know any Russia here and call its population Croats. Nevertheless, the indirect data allowing to assume more earlier penetration of this name into the region exist. It is about open for A.V. Nazarenko in the German sources of the toponyms connected with Russia, the personal names and mentions of Russia localizable in the territory of Austria and Bavaria, the earliest of which is the mention in 863 g of a toponym of Ruzaramarcha (Russian brand) in the diploma of the vostochnofranksky king Ludovic of Nemetskogo23. In a historiography three explanations for these facts were offered. According to A.V. Nazarenko, they are connected with the merchants from Russia who were actively trading with Bavaria. Offered other explanation

V.V. Sedov. The scientist considers that all these names are connected with Slavic "tribe" of rus, the Dnieper Bank living on average (Russia V.V. Sedov considers an ethnonym Iranian by origin and refers his perception by Slavs to times of the slavyano-Iranian symbiosis within the Chernyakhovsk culture of P-GU of centuries), which part during the Avarian invasion moved to the West (as Croats and duleba) 24. At last, according to A.G. Kuzmin, all these "Russian" names are connected with a name once living in the region rugov25, a part of which after falling of the gunnsky power went, according to the scientist, to Average Podneprovye26. What of these explanations corresponds to the truth - a question still open, however, that important for our subject, all of them perfectly explain penetration of an ethnonym Russia in Prikarpatye before its submission to Kiev as also the way of the Russian merchants to Bavaria lay through this region, and ways of probable migrations of "antsky rus" and rug. These questions need further most serious study.

So, summing up told, it is possible to claim surely that the first wave of penetration into Prikarpatye of Christianity is connected with influence of Great Moravia. However it had limited and short-term character and did not lead to radical change of the religious person regiona27.

In the 992nd Croatia it was won by the prince of Vladimirom28. Volhynia and Croatia became the last large East Slavic regions which got under the power of Kiev. Possibly, at first after gain they were administratively integrated under the power of the city of Vladimir-Volynskogo29 founded by the prince. About the last event the direct news is only in "History the Russian" of V.N. Tatishchev describing Vladimir's campaign to Volhynia and to Croatia with a number of the unique details which are absent in other sources: "Vla-

the diworld went across Dniester with two bishops, nauchy is a lot of people, christen, and constructed in Chervenskaya's earth a hail in a name Vladimir and church presvyatyya Virgin of a sozd, ostavya that the bishop Stepan and come back with pleasure" 30. In 6500 (992) g the Kiev metropolitan Leontes to Vladimir-Volynsk of the bishop Stefan tells about a postavleniye also in Nikonovskaya letopisi31. In "The story of temporary years" this city is for the first time mentioned in the story about investment of the sons with Vladimir with reignings where it is said about what at the beginning of the 11th century the 32nd prince put in this city of the son Vsevolod, but neither about foundation of the city of Vladimirom, nor about creation of episcopacy it there tells nothing. The fact of the basis of Vladimir-Volynsk the prince Vladimir is confirmed both by the name goroda33, and the archaeological materials demonstrating its emergence at the end of the X century 34 of its basis perfectly fits into traditional policy of the Kiev princes, since Olga creating in the conquered East Slavic lands the strong points as opposed to ancient local centram35. The situation and with Vladimir created as a strong point of the power of Kiev in peak to the local political center - the city of Volhynia was similar.

Creation in this city of episcopacy perfectly fits into the same policy also. The end of the X century is the time which is traditionally called the period of the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. Was told about the political reasons of adoption of new religion by Vladimir much. In the Soviet historiography the representation according to which the rapid development of feudalism demanding introduction of the new ideology consecrating new social system which became hristianstvo36 was its main reason dominated. After in works of I.Ya. Froyanov and his pupils the view of Ancient Russia as on the feudal society registered in the form of the feudal state was oprovergnut37, there was impossible also such interpretation of the main reason for the Epiphany of Rusi38. I.Ya. Froyanov looked at business differently and assumed that adoption of Christianity by Vladimir was in a context of the centralization policy pursued by it. To achieve strong political unity of Russia, it was necessary to provide its religious unity what required creation of the centralized church organization. In it the main political goal of adoption of Christianity also consisted - to achieve bigger centralization of Russia and to suppress regional separatism separate slaviniy39. In this plan the creation in just conquered lands episkopstva40 looks quite logichnym41.

In a historiography quite often hristianizatorsky activity of Vladimir is described as something grandiose and covering itself all

Russia, led to radical transformation its religious and cultural litsa42 for what, however, there are no sufficient bases. Vladimir had no enough clergy (Byzantium could not provide them all Russia, and on training of own clergy in the appropriate quantity a lot of time was necessary), technical capabilities for this purpose. Possibly, at Vladimir only the socio-political top of Russia plus the population of the largest cities (at the same time it should be noted that in this environment the Christianity began to extend long before Vladimir) 43 was baptized. Process of Christianization of Russian lands (especially rural areas) dragged on for centuries what speak as written sources about (first of all, various lectures against paganism), and the archaeological materials allowing to claim that up to the 13-14th centuries the whole areas of Ancient Russia were populated yazychnikami44. The situation and in Prikarpatye was similar. In spite of the fact that, judging by emergence at the end of the X century in the region beskurganny a cellar-niy45 it is possible to speak about the beginning of distribution hristianstva46 here, the paganism also continued to play an important role in religious life of Prikarpatye. Those Slavic pagan temples about which it was told above fully existed up to the 13th century 47 and stopped the life only after the Mongolian invasion. Thus, distribution of Christianity to Prikarpatye was process long, as well as in many regions of Ancient Russia, stretched for centuries.

1. About origin of Croats and their early history see: L.V. Voytovich
1) Knyaz_vstva Carpathian horvat_v//Etnogenez that rannya _stor_ya слов&ян: nov_ naukov_ kontsepts і ї on zlam_ tisyachol_t. Mat-whether M_zhnar. sciences. arkheolog_ch. konf-c і ї. Lv_v, 30 - 31 bereznya 2001 river Lv_v, 2001; 2) Karpatsk_ Croatia in an etnopol_-tichny rozvitk of Central Skh_dno ї =vrop rannyy serednyov_chchya//Ukra§na in the Central Східній =vrop_ (z naydavn_shy chas_v to the XVIII article). Ki§v, 2004. VIP. 4; 3) Carpathian Croats//St.Petersburg State University Ser Bulletin. 2. 2005. Issue 1; 4) East Prikarpatye in the second half І a millennium AD. Initial stages of formation of statehood//Rossica ап^иа: Researches and materials. 2006 / Otv. edition A.Yu. Dvornichenko, A.V. Mayorov. SPb., 2006; A.V. Mayorov 1) Konstantin Bagryanorodny about origin and early history of Croats: Great Croatia and white Croats//Rossica of an ap%i: Researches and materials. 2006;
2) Great Croatia: Ethnogenesis and early history of Slavs of the Carpathian region / Otv. edition of A.Yu. Dvornichenko. SPb., 2006; ZhihM. I.K to a problem of early history of Slavs of the Carpathian region (the middle - the second half

The I millennium AD)//International historical magazine "Rusin". [Chisinau]. 2009. No. 1 (15).

2. Story of temporary years. Preparation of the text, the translation, articles and D.S. Likhachyov's comments / Under V.P. Adrianova-Peretts's reaction. the 3rd prod. / Preparation of the edition and addition M of B. Sverdlov. SPb., 2007. Page 16, 54.
3. Konstantin Bagryanorodny. About management of the empire. M, 1989. Page 131, 135-136.
4. In the same place. Page 141.
5. See: Racki Fr. Biela Hrvatska i biela Srbija//Rad Jugoslovenske Akademije Znatnosti i Umjetnosti. Zagreb, 1880. T. 52; Jagic V Ein Kapitel aus der Geschichte der südslawichen Sprachen//Archiv für slavische Philologie. Bd. XVII. Berlin, 1895. S. 47-48; Brückner A. Wzory etymologii i krytyki zrodlowej//Slavia. Praha. T. 3. 1924-1925. S. 209-211; V.V. Sedov 1) Slavs in the early Middle Ages. M, 1995. Page 326; 2) Slavs. Historical and archaeological research//Sedov of V.V. Chosen works. M, 2005. Page 488-490.
6. L. Niderle. Slavic antiquities. M, 2000. Page 77-78; Majors And V. 1) Konstantin Bagryanorodny...; 2) Great Croatia... Page 11-48; ZhihM. I.K to a problem of early history. Page 26-30.
7. Usually invasion of Avars to Great Croatia is dated time apprx. 560 g: VoytovichL.B. East Prikarpatye. Page 22.
8. About it see: B.N. Flor. Formation of the Czech early feudal statehood and fate of consciousness of Slavic tribes of the Czech valley//Formation of early feudal Slavic nationalities. M, 1981.
9. In the second half of the X century, escaping from an impact of Pechenegs, in the Top Podnes-trovye belonging to Croats a part moves catch also tiverets (V.V. Sedov. East Slavs in the 6-13th centuries M., 1982. Page 128). Croats together with these immigrants will also become a basis of the population of the alitsky earth which is formed.
10. Rusanova. Item, TimoshchukB.A. Pagan sanctuaries of ancient Slavs. M, 2007.
11 Al-Masudi described in the "Slavic story" mainly Central Eastern Europe (M.I. Zhikh. About background of the Volynsk earth (VI - the beginning of the 10th century)//the International historical magazine "Rusin". [Chisinau]. 2008. No. 3-4 (13-14). And knew nothing page 38-41) about the Baltic coast. Therefore to connect this story with temples of the Baltic Slavs there are no sufficient bases. It is much more logical to connect it with the Slavic pagan center of Prikarpatye.
12. I use its translation unpublished still executed by and. N professor of department of history of faculty of sociology, economy and the right of the Moscow pedagogical state university Elena Sergeyevna Galkina who kindly provided it to me before the publication. Taking an opportunity, I express it for it the profound gratitude.
13. About it see: Kuzmin.G. Disputable and indisputable in the Christianization of Kievan Rus'//Youth, religion, atheism. M, 1986. Page 207-208; O.M. Rapov. The Russian church in IX - the first third of the 12th century. Adoption of Christianity. M, 1988. Page 115-116; M.K. Yurasov. New data on a baptism of ancestors of Russinians St. Mefodiy or his pupils

>//International historical magazine "Rusin". [Chisinau]. 2005. No. 2 (2).

S. 47.

14. YurasovM.K. New data on a baptism. Page 46-47.
15. In the same place. Page 47. Though it should be noted that in spite of the fact that Mefodiy's life does not contain data on his direct missionary activity in Prikarpatye, in it it is noted that all territory subject to Svyatopolk Moravsky fell within the scope of his missionary activity: ". And when accepted it (Mefodiy - M.Zh.) the prince Svyatopolk with all moravana, charged it all churches and spiritual in all grads. From the same day the beginning strongly raise the doctrine God's, and pagans - to believe in true God, renouncing the delusions. Especially and the Moravian country began to expand the borders extensively and to defeat the enemies, without failing." - it is said in the X head of "Life" (B.N. Flor. Legends on the beginning of Slavic writing. M, 1981. Page 99).
16. The rotunda dated X century in Peremyshla also has obvious lines of the Moravian influence. For the instruction on these circumstances I express huge sincere gratitude to. and. N to the associate professor of department of history of the Carpathian national university of Vasyl Stefanyk (Ivano-Frankivsk) Miroslav Mikhaylovich Voloshchuk.
17. B.Ya. Ramm. Papacy and Russia in the 10-15th centuries M.; L., 1959. Page 21 ("vernntatem non secundum ritus aut sectam Bulgariae gentis vel Ruzie aut Slavonice lingue, sed magis sequens institute et decreta apostolica, unum potiorem tocius ecclesie ad placitum eligas in hoc opus clericum latinis dprime litteris eruditum": Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores. Nova series. T. II. Berlin, 1955. P. 44).
18. In the same place. Page 21. Primech. 32.
19. M.K. Yurasov. New data on a baptism. Page 48.
20. In the same place. Page 48-49.
21. In the same place. Page 49.
22. In the same place. Page 49-52.
23. A.V. Nazarenko 1) About "The Russian brand" in medieval Hungary//Eastern Europe in the ancient time and the Middle Ages. M, 1978; 2) About the name "Russia" in the German sources of the 9-10th centuries//Questions of linguistics. 1980. No. 5; 3) The name "Russia" and its derivatives in the German medieval acts (9-14th centuries)//the Most ancient states in the territory of the USSR. 1982. M, 1984; 4) Russia and Germany in the 9-10th centuries//the Most ancient states of Eastern Europe. 1991. M, 1994; 5) Ancient Russia on the international ways: cross-disciplinary essays of cultural, commercial, political connections. M, 2001. Page 11-50.
24. V.V. Sedov. Slavs in the early Middle Ages. Page 124-125.
25. Kuzmin A.G. Rugi and rusa on Danube//Medieval and new Russia. The collection of scientific articles to the 60 anniversary of professor Igor Yakovlevich Froyanov / Otv. edition V.M. Vorobyov, A.Yu. Dvornichenko. SPb., 1996.
26. In the same place. Page 133-134.
27. It is not excluded, however, that penetration into Prikarpatye of the Moravian Christianity is connected not only with its influence on the region, but also with a wave of the immigrants from there who left the houses in connection with invasion of Hungarians. Part of them reached the Central Dnieper Bank where archeologists revealed their traces

(S.S. Shirinsky. Archaeological parallels to Christianity history in Russia and in Great Moravia//Ancient Russia and Slavs. M, 1987).

28. Story of temporary years. Page 54. For 907 g we have in "The story of temporary years" the instruction on participation of Croats in Oleg's campaign to Constantinople (PVL. Page 16). Proceeding from it, B.A. Tymoschuk (Tymoschuk of B.A. Davnyorusk Bukovina. Ki_v, 1982) believes that Croats were a part of Kievan Rus' already at this time (then, however, according to the scientist, they restored the independence and were again won by Vladimir). Such conclusion is represented though tempting, but too rectilinear: first, the list of the East Slavic tribes participating in a campaign can be and is doubtful, and secondly, participation in itself in a campaign does not speak about dependence of Croatia on Kiev - Croats quite could take part in a favorable campaign as allies of Russia, counting on a part of rich production. With confidence it is possible to speak about submission of Croats of Russia only after Vladimir's campaign in 992 g
29. GrushevskiyM. Page _storiya of Ukraini-Russia. Lv_v, 1905. Look. 2. T of II. Page 362, 363, 390; P.S. Stefanovich. The relations of the prince and the nobility in Galitsky and Volynsk principalities until the end of the 12th century//Medieval Russia. Issue 7//Otv. edition. A.A. Gorsky. M, 2007. Page 121-122.
30. TatishchevV.H. History Russian. T. II. M.; L., 1963. Page 64.
31. PSRL. T. IX. Page 65.
32. After the death of Vysheslav reigning in Novgorod which in "History the Russian" of V.N. Tatishchev is dated 1110. (T. II. Page 70).
33. Vladimir liked to call the cities founded by him the name. Let's remember based by it Vladimir in the Growth and Suzdal earth and Vasilyov called on his Christian name.
34. M.M. Kuchinko 1) the Medieval towns of Pobuzhya in the light of annalistic and archaeological sources//the Soviet Slavic studies. 1978. No. 9 4. Page 23; 2) The ancient city of Vladimir on Volhynia//the Old Russian city. Materials of the all-Union archaeological conference devoted to the 1500 anniversary of the city of Kiev. Kiev, 1984. Page 68.
35. M.I. Zhikh. 1) About some aspects of "transfer" of the Old Russian cities//the New view. Laboratory of social history of the Tambov state university of G.R. Derzhavin. International collection of works of young historians. T. 1 / Editorial council: R.B. Konchakov (chairman), etc. Tambov, 2007; 2) to a problem of origin of the Old Russian cities//the Past of Novgorod and the Novgorod earth: materials of scientific conferences 20062007 Years / Originator V.F. Andreyev; NOVGU of Yaroslav the Wise. Veliky Novgorod, 2007.
36. O.M. Rapov. Russian church. Page 42-58; I.Ya. Froyanov. About historical value of "Christianization of Kievan Rus'"//I.Ya. Froyanov. Beginnings of the Russian history. Favourites. M, 2001. Page 764-769.
37. I.Ya. Froyanov. 1) Kievan Rus': Essays of social and economic history. L., 1974; 2) Kievan Rus': Essays of socio-political history. L., 1980; 3) Rebellious Novgorod: Essays of history of statehood, social and political struggle of the end of IX - the beginning of the XIII century. SPb., 1992; 4) ancient Russia: Experience of a research of history of social and political struggle. M.;

SPb., 1995; 5) slavery and a dannichestvo at east Slavs. ED-K of centuries SPb., 1996; 6) Kievan Rus'. Main lines of a social and economic system. SPb., 1999; I.Ya. Froyanov, A.Yu. Dvornichenko. City-states of Ancient Russia. L., 1988; A.Yu. Dvornichenko. Russian lands of Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Essays of history of community, estates, statehood (prior to the beginning of the 16th century). SPb., 1993; V.V. Puzanov 1) Princely and state farm in Russia the 10-12th centuries in a domestic historiography of XVIII - the beginnings of the 20th century Izhevsk, 1995; 2) Old Russian statehood: genesis, ethnocultural environment, ideological constructs. Izhevsk, 2007; Krivosheevyu. Century Russia and Mongols: Research on the history of Northeast Russia the 12-14th centuries SPb., 2003; A.V. Mayorov. Galits-co-Volynskaya Russia: essays of the socio-political relations during the domongolsky period. Prince, boyars and city community. SPb., 2001; Mikhaylova of I.B. Sluzhilye people of Northeast Russia in XIV — the first half of the 16th century: Essays of social history. SPb., 2003; A.V. Petrov. From paganism to Sacred Russia. The Novgorod intestine wars (to studying Old Russian veche way). SPb., 2003.

38. V.T. Pashuto. Concerning the book by I.Ya. Froyanov "Kievan Rus': Essays of socio-political history"//Medieval and new Russia (for the first time article appeared: History questions. 1982. No. 9 9). Page 768.
39. I.Ya. Froyanov. 1) About historical value. Page 784-788; 2) The beginning of Christianity in Russia. Izhevsk, 2003; A.Yu. Dvornichenko. Old Russian society and church. L., 1988.
40. Originally probably were its part both Volhynia, and Croatia making as it was noted above, at a boundary of X-X! centuries uniform administrative whole.
41. The latest attempts to show full unauthenticity of all original news of "History the Russian" (A.P. Tolochko. "History Russian" of Vasily Tatishchev: sources and news. M.; Kiev, 2005; SverdlovM. B. Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev is an author and the editor of "History the Russian". SPb., 2009) look, in our opinion, unconvincing: A.V. Zhuravel. New Herostratus, or At sources of "modern history"//the Collection of the Russian historical society. T. 10 (158). M, 2006; StefanovichP. Page. "History Russian" of V.N. Tatishchev: disputes continue//National history. 2007. No. 3.
42. At the same time, depending on outlook of any given author, Christianization is described from the most pozitvny tones (for example, K.S. Aksakov wrote at the time: "When you remember how the Russian people were christened, involuntarily you be touched soul. The Russian people were christened easily and without fight as the baby" (tsit. on: L.R. Prozorov Russia pagan. Twilight of the Russian gods. M, 2009. Page 22)) to the most negative (see for example: L.R. Prozorov Russia pagan. Page 338-411).
43. Cf.: I.Ya. Froyanov. About historical value. Page 785.
44. N.M. Galkovsky. Fight of Christianity against the paganism remains in Ancient Russia. T. I. Kharkiv, 1916. T. II. M, 1913; Anichkov.B. Paganism and Ancient Russia. SPb., 1914. Page 306; O.M. Rapov. Russian church.; GordienkoN.C. Christianization of Kievan Rus': the facts against legends and myths. Polemic notes. L., 1984; B.A. Rybakov. Paganism of Ancient Russia. M, 1987; I.Ya. Froyanov. 1) About istori-

chesky value. Page 786-788; 2) The beginning of Christianity in Russia; I.P. Rusanova, TimoshchukB.A. Pagan sanctuaries. Page 171-173; L.R. Prozorov Russia Pagan. Page 338-501, etc.

45. V.V. Sedov. East Slavs. Page 126-128.
46. O.M. Rapov. Russian church. Page 365-366.
47. Rusanova. Item, TimoshchukB.A. Pagan sanctuaries. Page 98-113, 159-177.

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