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Ivan Aleksandrovich Uspensky: "Sluzhenye silent on an education field"



UDK 94 (470): 37(092)

S.A. Kochurina

IVAN ALEKSANDROVICH USPENSKY: "SLUZHENYE SILENT ON NIVA PROSVESHCHENYA"

The most significant periods of life of the director of the Tomsk teacher's institute Ivan Aleksandrovich Uspensky (1867-1943) reveal. The major factors which influenced formation of his professional credo are defined. Characteristic of activity of Uspensky in educational institutions of the West Siberian educational district the H1H-beginning of the 20th century is given at the end

The director of the Tomsk teacher's institute (19071920) Ivan Aleksandrovich Uspensky (1867-1943) came from hereditary priestly family of Uspensky which conducted the origin from the Old Russian city of Rostov. He was born on November 1, 1867 in family of the priest of church of the village of Aleshkova Rostovskogo of the county Alexander Ivanovich Uspensky and his wife Nadezhda Andreevna [1, l. 48]. In 1870 the urban district Alexander Uspensky received arrival in Myshkin where he moved together with the family. Myshkin was the small district center, but among other towns of the Golden Ring gained broad popularity including thanks to stone St. Nicholas Cathedral which was built at the expense of locals at the beginning of the 19th century. The church differing in majestic beauty and severity of classical forms served as a subject of pride of citizens. Served all next years before retirement in this cathedral Uspensky, being awarded numerous awards from spiritual department and being held in the deserved respect and love of parishioners. In Uspensky' family except younger Ivan there were two more son and the daughter. The senior - Dmitry (1856-1919) long time served in Myshkin on police department. Average - Alexander (1865-1947) after training at medical faculty of the Tomsk university worked as the doctor in Yaroslavl. The sister Maria (1877-1955), having graduated from the Yaroslavl diocesan school, subsequently married the priest Alexander Ivanovich Poretsko-go (1873-1942) who "inherited" Uspensky's place in St. Nicholas Cathedral and continued a priestly dynasty of Uspensky-Poretsky. The special, warm atmosphere filled with love and attention for children reigned in Uspensky' family. It is probable therefore subsequently successors of this dynasty often chose as business of the life pedagogical calling. In Soviet period many of them became teachers. In 2005 in Myshkin also still only museum of school notebooks in Russia which basis of a collection was a remained family archive of Uspensky-Poretsky [2] was created first.

The professional choice Ivan Aleksandrovich, as well as his father, made in favor of spiritual

formations. Spiritual educational institutions of that time combined in themselves two functions: conducted training of future priests and were a svy sort departmental pedagogical educational institutions: seminaries trained teachers of church and parish schools, and spiritual academies - mentors and teachers of seminaries and spiritual schools.

In 1885 Uspensky came to the Yaroslavl theological seminary, one of the oldest educational institutions of the Yaroslavl province. Time on which years of study of Uspensky fell was the difficult period in the history of development of Russian education. the 1880th is "Pobedonostsev's era", time of reaction, censorship strengthening, reduction of freedoms. The chief prosecutor of the Holy Synod sought to strengthen control over spiritual educational institutions. On memoirs of contemporaries, despite a post, "Pobedonostsev resolutely did not love divinity and was afraid, and spoke of "search of the truth" always with a bad and contemptuous smile..." [3, page 133]. Toughening of educational policy finally closed access to the classical universities to graduates of theological seminaries therefore if desired to continue education of the real choice at them, as a rule, was not, and most often they came to spiritual academies.

During reforms in education the new charter of spiritual academies of 1884 which made changes to the internal device, Regulations of Admission of these educational institutions was issued, toughened censorship and strengthened control from the highest authorities. In academies the preparation specialization, publicity of the academic debates and some other the innovations which were fixed in former years was cancelled. Three years of training in academy came to the end with examinations and submission of "the final composition". If the GPA for examinations did not exceed 4.5, then the student of academy was issued with a rank of "the valid student". Successfully passed examinations were left on the fourth year and studied special and pedagogical disciplines, underwent student teaching. For these students the training came to the end with protection of the candidate composition by results of which degree of the candidate of divinity was awarded.

In the 1880th "the prohibitive policy" of Pobedonostsev yielded the results: among clergy the insincere double-faced relation to work began to be formed, the lack of otkrypy discussions deprived of serious criticism theological and scientific works of students. On the other hand, the short period of liberalism and openness of the post-reform period promoted wide circulation of the theological ideas. New trends got and occupied the Moscow academy in favor of which Ivan Aleksandrovich Uspensky made the choice. Moscow Spiritual Academy (MSA) of a sbysh the oldest higher education institution and spiritual center of orthodox Russia. To arrive here always bysho it is difficult, and by the end of the 80th of the 19th century when in connection with guarding measures the enrollment of students in academy was reduced and considerably the competition raised. Uspensky successfully overcame the difficulties connected with receipt and was enlisted in number of students. Its student's years fell on the most significant period in the history of MSA connected with a rektorstvo of the archimandrite Anthony Hrapovitsky who was on this post only five years - from 1890 to 1895

Activity and Anthony Hrapovitsky's identity in the history of Russian Orthodox Church of the end of the XIX beginning of the 20th century received ambiguous assessment in works of researchers and memoirs of contemporaries, but all of them without exception meet that the period of its short rektorstvo scientific and church life of the Moscow academy gained special character. On memoirs of the former students the service of the island of Antoniya on a post of the rector brought in its walls "absolutely new spirit, having exempted Academy from pernicious scholasticism and a formalism". Uspensky's contemporary metropolitan Eulogius noted that relationship of the rector and students of a bysha "truly innovative, removing far for a framework of representations habitual for those times. The opponent of a formalism and conventionalism of the island of Antony sought to awaken fire of a living faith in students, to involve the pets in church public work, to the vital issues concerning the Russian society" [4]. As the chief, the teacher, the scientist and the tutor, he "was an idol of the studying youth". A. Hrapovitsky was a supporter of "real-life, informal communication in the student's and academic environment", by "the opponent of any administrative and educational strogost and restrictions" also influenced people the kind relation and a word [3-5].

Between the rector and professorate good relations which contributed to the development nauchnygs researches were also quickly established. Lectures in academy were given by outstanding scientists - Vvedensky, Golubinsky, Klyuchevsky, Lebedev, Mouret - of comrade. Their scientific works were published on pages of "The theological bulletin" - the new periodical MDA based at A. Hrapovitsky. Two -

ri the rectorial apartment were widely open for students and visitors. Communication of the academic youth and rector behind a tea drinking where theses were discussed became traditional and disputes were conducted, spoke much about the Russian literature which Hrapovitsky perfectly knew. Influence of the archimandrite on students was huge. As the metropolitan Eulogius wrote, he "stirred up, burned in a fit of temper eagerness" to serve society. Graduates of the island of Antoniya brought to educational institutions of Russia new understanding of tasks and a role of the teacher in formation of the personality and everywhere sought to follow the principles in practice. Among fellow students and Uspensky's contemporaries this influence was very noticeable. Years of study in academy, undoubtedly, had the strongest impact on Uspensky's formation as teacher, created his views of professional activity.

In 1894, after the successful termination of academy with degree of the candidate of divinity, I.A. Uspensky was directed to work as the assistant to the inspector in the Tomsk theological seminary [7, l. 50, 50 about.]. After arrival on the duty station it faced all negative phenomena of real life of these educational institutions at once. "The first and main feature of educational process was to be gone in spiritual schools of that time between learning and studying, being expressed in lack of interest at the first in internal life of the last. All educational system came down only to the external control over behavior of pupils exercised by means of the inspector and his assistants. Members of seminar administration treated students with mistrust, sometimes - with undisguised contempt. Among seminarists "bursatsky", and at the same time extremely liberal spirit reigned. The administration maintained the most strict discipline, but it did not stir dissoluteness of seminar customs and to distribution among pupils of the revolutionary ideas... Against student's solidarity the most strict repressive measures were powerless. Difficulties were created not so much by pupils how many the established forms of the seminar mode", - the metropolitan Eulogius so described internal life of seminaries of that time [4]. A situation in the Tomsk theological seminary and an event which followed after Uspensky's appointment completely answered this characteristic.

With pervygs days of work not only the divergence in Uspensky's ideas of a role of the inspector in seminary that in practice it was recommended to it to execution by the rector of educational institution, but also in general lack of any general orientation in educational work was found out at once. In February, 1896 Uspensky wrote in the letter to the family that the inspector "briefly, but expressively presented me the program educational dey-

stviye and means - one compression of a fist: "It is necessary to take away them!". On the other hand, "the rector - this of desire to achieve popularity (but, apparently, its efforts will not be crowned with success) - indulges pupils"". Uspensky did not hurry to take the offered advices, reasoning with what "to squeeze-prignetat" not in his character [6], and began to act according to own understanding of a role of the tutor and mentor acquired in academy.

Attention to the identity of seminarists and at the same time the strict and fair attitude towards them allowed Uspensky to win respect of the pets. Reading archival documents of the different periods of activity of Ivan Aleksandrovich, it is possible to make sure that, defining the direction of pedagogical work, he always aspired as it is possible to estimate and understand more deeply requirements and features of each pupil. The fatherlike relation, sincere interest in life of young people and great desire to promote their spiritual improvement was characteristic of it.

Uspensky's activity in seminary differed in versatility. Except the direct duties he was a member of treasury chamber of the Tomsk diocesan uchilishchny council, the member of the board of trustees about poor pupils of seminary, the member of council of Brotherhood of Dmitry Rostovsky - the educational organization which was engaged in missionary activity among the people of Altai, since September, 1898 the teacher of church and bible history in seminary. The round of its classes and responsibility bysh is rather wide. Among its track record there is even a gratitude "for skillful administrative ability on the fire in old seminar buildings" in January, 1897 [1, l. 1-6 about.].

In 1900 Uspensky was appointed to a position of the inspector of the Tomsk theological seminary. On him responsibility for supervision and education of pupils lay. In process of a statement in the profession also advantages of its approach in pedagogical work became obvious. Uspensky managed to find contact with the pupils, had an opportunity to have necessary impact on them, to send their interest and attention to a positive side, keeping belief in the field chosen once. However the unwillingness to follow unreasonably strict rules and state discipline and aspiration to build the relations with seminarists on trust and respect for their advantage did not find understanding at the administration of educational institution. Methods of work of Uspensky sharply contrasted with the general principles of work of seminary. The difference of opinion of Uspensky with the management was embroidered in disorders and demonstrative acts of disobedience from outside with seminarists. The adminimtsration saw the reason of disorders in Uspenskom which the work proved that it is possible to work in a different way - to build the relations

with pupils, being based not on official instructions and state discipline, and on trust and attention to them. Uspensky wrote: "... for them the pupil something impersonal; think that then only in seminary there will be an order and there will be then good people when in pupils the administration etches all its personal, will destroy all desires; the perfect order is when pupils on a string yes all on a call go where will allow and to breathe when they order. Life in seminary, according to others, has to be like place of detention or the strict monastery, is isolated from the whole world. How soon people forget that they thought when they were pupils!" Uspensky estimated the position and partly pedagogical credo so: "... I do not humour under a law letter, under their circulars. Above all circulars I put conscience and the pupil" [6].

Despite softness peculiar to Ivan Aleksandrovich and goodwill in communication, the aspiration to avoid the conflicts and quarrels, its stand was principled. It was opposition of the person convinced of the correctness not with specific people or the administration, and with the developed system. Only reforming of this system, use of other educational approach based on respect for the personality, development of her creative initiative, aspiration to impart to the pupil conscientious attitude to study, divinity, church service could change a situation.

The decision of the highest authorities on the translation in August, 1902 of I.A. Uspensky to a position of the inspector of the Perm theological seminary [1, l became a result of opposition. 5 about.-6]. Seminarists organized to Ivan Aleksandrovich the solemn farewell. About this event even the Tomsk press did not consider superfluous to write. In the Sibirskaya Zhizn newspaper of September 4, 1902 it was in detail told about the taken place event in honor of "the favourite inspector". In response to solemn speeches of the former pupils now the former inspector of the Tomsk seminary told: "You were my weakness, my joy, my pride. Perhaps, I deeply am mistaken, but always it seemed to me that near me you became softer, more obediently and more purely." [7]. For years of work in Tomsk Ivan Aleksandrovich got a wide range of friends, deserved respect and love of pupils and colleagues. Leaving, he with regret noticed: "... nevertheless it is possible to fight against the evil... but there is no wish to leave Tomsk where all treated me so kindly, - both clergy, and teachers, and pupils, and society - everything, except monks" [6].

Possibly, then Ivan Aleksandrovich came to the decision to leave service in spiritual department and to be transferred to department of the Ministry of national education. He stayed in a new position of the inspector of the Perm theological seminary not for long.

Almost at once after arrival on the destination Uspensky received the letter from the director of Institute of Technology with news of appointment since October, 1902 as the assistant to the inspector in this institute. The nature of the letter and the telegram attached to it is said that friends waited and actively petitioned for the fastest return of Uspensky back to Tomsk [1, l. 24].

On service Ivan Aleksandrovich's activity gained more recognitions in MNP, and his career developed quite successfully. Since September, 1903 he received the place of the teacher of literature of the Tomsk Mariinsky female gymnasium. By this time he is already experienced and dear teacher in a rank of the outdoor adviser with seniority [1, l. 5 about.-6]. Then also obvious administrative abilities of I.A. Uspensky who in the absence of the director of a gymnasium fulfilled his duties were noticed.

At the beginning of 1907 the administration of the educational district made Uspensky the proposal to hold the released position of the director of the Tomsk teacher's institute. Such offer was the certificate of high appreciation of pedagogical activity as exclusively experienced honored teachers or scientists what were K.K. St Hilaire, M.I. Demkov, F.G. Choubin, A.P. Medvedkov or the former director of the THUJA M.A. Vodyannikov were appointed to the position of directors of teacher's institutes. Uspensky agreed, having become the last permanent director of teacher's institute up to 1920. For its management both time of blossoming of the THUJA, and years of world and civil wars, and the heaviest period of education reforms of the Soviet power was necessary.

As the director of teacher's institute had a number of basic features. Now on Uspensky responsibility for education and preparation for professional activity of teachers lay. However the principles by which it was guided in work remained invariable, having once again proved efficiency of the approach based on simple respect for the person, the personality and honest service to the calling. As it is possible to notice, had its relation to pupils much in common with style of work of Anthony Hrapovitsky. Uspensky wrote: "For educational, pedagogical personnel and I tried to become closer to pupils, to establish live connection between us and them, whenever possible, to subordinate them to the influence, it is careful and sympathizing to treat their needs; getting acquainted with their specific features, helping them with a priiskaniye itself a subsistence. In types of rapprochement with pupils, usually I do not appoint for them special reception hours: as well as for teachers, my door is always open for them" [8].

His views quite often were contrary to official instructions and requirements of the ministry. In particular, in issues of education future you learn -

the leu was required to observe strictly the "Provision on teacher's institutes of 1872" providing the closed mode of educational institution, a strict daily routine and disciplinary punishments for the slightest violations of an established order. Uspensky followed the principle of expediency of any given measures, proceeding from specifics of the contingent of pupils. Its ideas of a role of the teacher in education and methods of work of pedagogical collective differed from accepted in educational institutions of that time. For 1911 it wrote in the report on activity of the THUJA: "... disciplinary and other pedagogical means which average educational institutions of general education type usually have, at us, at teacher's institutes, are not applicable as it and was proved by experience of the first years of life our Tomsk, is equal also other institutes. They are unsuitable so far as our pupils differ from pupils in those educational institutions and even from pupils in higher educational institutions... We have people with absolutely developed character and the taken roots habits, persistent, is frequent to insuperable obstinacy in the aspirations, the independent social and official positions, most often teacher's which were almost surely borrowing before revenues to an institute bench. To direct such list of pupils by standard school disciplinary practices and uneducationally and it is impossible" [8]. Instead of state working methods Uspensky offered the way of achievement of an objective: "Pedagogical experience leads to a conclusion that for achievement of unity of this weight, for appropriate production of the serious doctrine and discipline, it is necessary to direct them, having set as the purpose, first of all and is more main - excitement and strengthening in in-stitutets of versatile interest in the doctrine that then this interest to take whenever possible all their thoughts and to fill up all the time and, having created gradually serious scientific mood, to struggle thus with temptations and idleness, possible for them, and to release on the termination of a course of really knowing and able-bodied teachers." [8].

Really, training programs of institute were very saturated and considerably exceeded the volume of requirements of official documents. Uspensky managed to involve in THUJAS of interesting talented teachers though it was and it is hard taking into account a low wage in such institutions. "Entering extensive programs and the best manuals, then fast forward speed (teachers. - S.K.) lead the listeners, and it is a lot of, seriously and strongly, but is feasible, force them to work that they do not have time and forces and hunting for vagrant thoughts and affairs. Undoubtedly, where interest, there and attention, will be also all person there!. The correct party of business has deep influence on all psychology of the pupil, not only dis-

tsipliniruya his thought and enriching

with knowledge, but also developing its will, ability and love for work, and, therefore, and ennobling its moral qualities" [8].

Sought to develop pedagogical abilities of students of institute in all directions.

At the Tomsk institute the special atmosphere of creativity which also served the pedagogical purposes was supported. The teaching staff of institute considered one of the most important educational tools of the teacher the device of traditional institute literary musicales. Participation in preparation of such actions gave necessary skills of expressive reading, promoted production of the correct speech, development of esthetic taste, artistic and musical abilities of listeners.

Tomsk teacher's, certainly, was among front lines and the most reputable educational institutions of Russia. Here permanently high competition on receipt remained. It allowed institute in 1917 one of the first to start reform of the training programs and its reorganization on a new basis which are brought closer to high school education. Successful development and bright history THUJA certainly are a merit of his director - Ivan Aleksandrovich Uspensky who managed to create the atmosphere, unique for the time, in institute. In general, according to the graduate of institute A.M. Volkov, "The Tomsk teacher's institute was a rare oasis against the background of the general pedantry and the dryness dominating in educational institutions during that far era" [6]. And among graduates of the THUJA was many talented teachers, scientists and researchers.

In 1920 after the statement in Siberia of the Soviet power the teacher's institute was subject to transformation to the Soviet type of pedagogical higher education institution - institute of national education. But owing to a difficult political, social and financial position

the region these works were suspended. From now on Ivan Aleksandrovich Uspensky, as well as other teachers was probably interrupted by accidental earnings of the teacher of literature, the proofreader, etc. The new power very much was wary of teachers of pre-revolutionary educational institutions. From the institute case where for it the state management apartment was specially provided, Uspensky got over to live in numerous family of the former teacher of institute P.V. Pudo-vikov. Officially Uspensky was dismissed from service only in 1922

On memoirs of Sergey Stepanovich Moskvi-tin, the grandson Pyotr Vladimirovich Pudovikov, Ivan Aleksandrovich was a person quiet, very kind, everywhere, where he had to live, parted gardens and flower beds. He laid Uchitelsky Square foundation near the building of institute. In pre-war years I.A. Uspensky connected the life with Maria Leonidovna Shilovskaya, the head mistress of private music school, famous in the Tomsk creative world. With it he lived before the death on April 14, 1943

I.A. Uspensky is a striking example of the person which throughout all life consistently served the calling and ideals. I.A. Uspensky's activity found continuation in his numerous pupils. Being a talented teacher, he had ability to help the person to see and open with itself(himself) the best qualities for service to the chosen business. Ivan Aleksandrovich "belonged to number of those few persons to whom most the nature it is allowed to bring the world there where it is absent, sluzhiv the uniting beginning of separate elements, to support those who fall under weight of a vital burden, to extend around himself beams of inexhaustible caress and affability and on the love to cause reciprocal love..." [7].

List of references

1. GATO. T. 194. Op. 6. 129.
2. Materials of fund of the Museum of Nikola (Kurov-center) of Mr. Myshkin.
3. Prot. Georgy Florovsky. Ways of the Russian divinity. M, 2003.
4. Metropolitan Eulogius (Georgiyevsky). Way of my life. M, 2006.
5. Archimandrite Kiprian (Core). Ascension to Favorskii to light. M, 2007.
6. Materials on history THUJA//Funds of the Museum of history TGPU.
7. Siberian life. 1902. September 4. No. 192.
8. GATO, T. 126. Op. 2. 2576. L. 315 - 319.

Kochurina S.A., candidate of historical sciences, department chair of national history and cultural science of IK.

Tomsk state pedagogical university.

Kiyevskaya St., 60, Tomsk, Tomsk region, Russia, 634061.

Material came to edition 08.12.2009

S. A Kotchurina

IVAN ALEKSANDROVITCH USPENSKY: QUIET WORK IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

The article covers the most important periods of life of Ivan Aleksandrovitch Uspensky (1867-1943), head of the Tomsk Teachers' Institute. It determines the main actors having influenced his professional credo and deals with his activity at the educational institutions in the West Siberian okrug at the end of the 19th at the beginning of the 20th century.

Tomsk State Pedagogical University.

Ul. Kievskaya, 60, Tomsk, Tomskaya oblast, Russia, 634061.

Kenneth Johnson
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