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elena of GORDINA


In article the author analyzes process of transformation of mass consciousness, the concept of development of the country, the state ideology by means of concrete examples of transformation of an image of the sovereign, governor in the Soviet historical Romance philology.

The author analyzes the process of transformation of public mind, conception of country development and state ideology on examples of transformation of ruler’s image in Soviet historical and belletristic literature.

ideology, tsar, defender, despot, national opinion, Romance philology; ideology, ruler, protector, despot, public opinion, romance

Formation in the society of an image of the statesman always and is in any country of the world under close attention of the power. The mechanism of formation of mass consciousness by means of the appeal to history — one of the most current problems at the moment. There is the closest interrelation between the ideal of the historical statesman which developed in society and the present, trends of development of political system of the country. Our task within this article — to consider on examples of concrete works transformation dominating in the Soviet historical Romance philology of the 30th — the beginnings of the 40th of an image of the sovereign, the new doctrine caused by radical change at this time of the general concept of development of the country in general and designed to approve. The main source of a research is the Soviet historical Romance philology of the specified period.

From the second half of the 30th as the official doctrine of the Soviet Union the "state" concept is finally approved. Process of ideological reorganization inevitably was followed by a powerful propaganda campaign. The statement of new value reference points, first of all — fostering patriotism, and the main tool — history became its main objective. Therefore the 30th were marked by large-scale changes in the sphere of historical science and education and in the relation to the history of the power and society in general. "Stalin prepared for war and understood that it is necessary to prepare for it mass historical consciousness for what it was necessary to form the new historical ideology covering the population of the country of military age, i.e. students and the senior school students" 1. In 1934 — 35 the broad campaign for revision of history, the purpose koto-was launched

1 I.V. Stalin. Historical ideology in the USSR in 1920 — the 50th years: Correspondence with historians, articles and notes on stories, transcripts of performances. Collection of documents and materials. Part 1. 1920 — the 30th years / sost. M.V. Zelenov. — SPb., 2006, page 185.



Dmitriyevna — to. and. N, associate professor of the Volga state inzhenernopedagogichesky university, N. Novgorod gordinelena @

a swarm consisted in revaluation of the Russian past and history of the relations of the different people which are a part of the Soviet Union.

Fiction, first of all — the genre of the Soviet historical Romance philology which developed by then became one of the most important channels of promoting of history in society, its lighting from certain ideological positions.

The "state" subject became one of the main in the Soviet historical novel in the second half of the 1930th — the beginning of the 40th. The central place in this subject was taken by the image of the governor which is present to some extent at all works of this genre from the moment of its emergence in the Soviet literature. In forming by authors of historical novels by the 1920th — the beginnings of the 40th of an image of the statesman are noticeable two trends. We will consider them on examples of works of winners Stalin (State) premii1, widely popularized in the 30-40th and therefore had significant effect on formation of an image of the statesman in mass consciousness.

The first trend is peculiar to works with domination of historico-revolutionary subject in the 1920th (more) — the 30th and consists in negative coloring of an image of the tsar. Discredit of a tsarism, autocracy as main opponent of revolutionaries and rebels was the integral component of the works devoted to "genealogical revolution". Especially

1 In 1939. The resolution SNK USSR of 20.12.1939 founded the State awards for achievements in science, cultures, literatures and arts. This event was dated for the 60 anniversary since the birth of I.V. Stalin therefore throughout 40-50-hgg. (till November, 1961) awards were called Stalin. According to the Resolution of December 20, 1940 the award of awards was supposed for the most outstanding works of the last 6 — 7 years. The first rewarding took place in March, 1941 and was widely covered in the Pravda. Winners in literature many years in a row became authors of historical novels of patriotic subject: in 1941 — A.S. Novikov-Priboy for Tsushima, A.N. Tolstoy for the novel "Peter I", S.N. Sergeyev-Tsensky for "The Sevastopol harvest season"; in 1942 — S.P. Borodin for the novel "Dmitry Donskoy", V.G. Yang for the novel "Chingis-han", A. Antonovskaya for the novel "Great Mouravi"; in 1943 — V.V. Veresayev — on set of works; in 1946 — A.N. Stepanov for Port Arthur and. etc.

noticeable it concerning those sovereigns of whose board growth of popular uprisings and revolutionary moods in society and, respectively, fight against them is the share (Alexey Mikhaylovich, all Russian emperors of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries). Even it all the same is present at the works which are not relating directly to revolutionary subject. For example, in the Soviet military and historical novel (at A.S. Novikova-Priboya, S.N. Sergeyev-Tsensky, A.N. Stepanov, etc.) increase of antigovernmental, anti-autocratic moods of soldiers and sailors is separate and very important story line and is followed sharply critical (sometimes — even sarcastic) by the image of tsars. An example of such satirical image of the tsar and formation of the corresponding attitude towards him at readers is the nickname mentioned A.S. Novikovy-Priboyem in Tsushima given "for eyes" to Nicholas II by sailors — "a Tsarskoye Selo gopher" 2.

The tsar appears as the main responsible for the most bitter military defeats of Russia, its technical backwardness from the European countries, national poverty. Characterizing government of the emperor Nicholas I, S.N. Sergeyev-Tsensky in the novel "Sevastopol Harvest Season" noted that "all pedagogical receptions of the worthy tutor Nikolay, having become the emperor, applied to Russia. It sec. its birches, beat with shpitsrutena and lashes, in all ways suppressed in it natural ability to think, eradicated in it the slightest aspiration to freedom, at last, kind of in an attack of the last rage, set it on a wall of armed forces of Europe" 3. When "the furious enemy of the revolutionary ideas who strong held down gendarme chains the huge country descended, at last, from a scene" 4, Russia "had to reap in inheritance what was persistently and persistently sowed by him within thirty years. For this purpose hard and busy season of a harvest, for this harvest season it was taken away by history as though a strip of the Russian land small absolutely, the coast of the Crimea, in only two-three dozen kilometers dli-

2 Novikov-Priboy A.S. Tsusima. — Cheboksary, 1986, page 42.
3 S.N. Sergeyev-Tsensky. Sevastopol harvest season. Prince 2. — Simferopol, 1955, page 338.
4 In the same place, page 371.

I ache, in several kilometers width, but for Russia this harvest season was really time of the huge tension" 1.

The progressiveness of thinking, understanding acts as criterion of true greatness of the governor that the main property of the country, the key to its successful development use of creative, creative energy of its people is. Sergeyev-Tsensky repeatedly mentions concrete manifestations of extreme conservatism imperatora2 which main mistake was a requirement "from all in the state only of protection of the legalized order of things" 3 and inability to estimate "creative talent of the people, his wonderful scientists and inventions" 4.

At the same time the tsar as the writer sarcastically notices, sincerely wished "to be the exemplary emperor who constantly is concerned about needs of the state" therefore "since the morning he was already engaged in the office in the next public affairs" 5, fixedly penetrated into weight voprosov6, managed to be present at numerous military reviews and very much liked to pose for artists.

Describing the procedure of the corporal punishments which became a continuous rule in the Nikolaev Russia, S.N. Sergeyev-Tsensky exposes pseudo-humanity of the tsar who refused to enter the death penalty in Russia: "he as though forgot about five the Decembrists who are hung up by it. However... twelve thousand sticks cost not to one death penalty as was not and there could not be a person who would be capable to take out such "punishment" and to survive" 7.

It is known that in the period of Nicholas I's government on pages of works of art the parallel, analogy to Peter I who became at this time "the favourite hero was persistently drawn

1 In the same place, page 371.
2 In the same place, page 198 — 201.
3 In the same place, page 198.
4 In the same place, page 246.
5 In the same place, page 194.
6 For example: "... any a little "large" construction in any small town of its extensive kingdom could not begin if the plan and her facade after indispensable representation to it for viewing was not for some reason approved by it" (in the same place, page 201).
7 In the same place, page 203.

historical fiction" 8. At the same time writers joined creation of the state myth consisting in idealization of Peter I whose successor draws Nicholas I who came to the throne exactly in hundred years after Peter's death. A task of this myth is formation in mass consciousness of an image of the tsar nationwide, the father of the people, the trustee and the observer poryadka9.

Partly for this reason, remembering this parallel of the Nikolaev era, Sergeyev-Tsensky opposes Nicholas I to Peter the Great: "... enormous growth and a mighty voice appeared far not enough to become the second Peter.... Peter in the intellectual movement of the people saw progress, Nicholas — revolution; Peter did of pastry cooks of ministers and of ordinary smiths of kings of iron and steel; Nicholas — of people of the state mind and abilities did hanged men and convicts, of daroviteyshy poets — soldiers. Its long and persistent fight against a thought is unprecedented in the Russian history.... Nikolay Protsarstvoval years thirty, and froze Russia on sixty" 10.

Other trend in giving of the "state" subject is connected with ideological turn from the middle of the 30th towards the ideas of patriotism and strong statehood which replaced the concept of revolutionary "dying off of the state", characteristic of the 20th. It consists in creation in historical and art and scientific literature of a positive image of the governor — the builder of the state. At the same time writers addressed the description of activity of such eminent persons as Ivan il Terribile, Peter I, Dmitry Donskoy, Alexander Nevsky, etc. Romana A.N. Tolstoy (Peter I),

V.I. Kostyleva (Ivan the Terrible),

C. Borodin ("Dmitry the Don") in which the new interpretation of the "state" subject reveals most fully were repeatedly republished and were awarded the highest state award which could be noted proiz-

8 A.L. Ospovat, A.B. Roginsky. Historical prose and state myth//Old years. Russian historical stories and stories of the first half of the 19th century / sost. and podgot. A. Roginsky's text; posl. A. Ospovat, A. Roginsky. — M, 1989, page 361.
9 In the same place, page 362.
10 S.N. Sergeyev-Tsensky. Decree. soch., page 213, 215.

maintaining and its author — the State (Stalin) award. Some common features, main of which — not just idealization of the main character, but conscious, very consecutive and logical forming of an image of the ideal governor are inherent in them.

The tsar is represented as the zealous owner whose all activity is subordinated to a main goal — to make Russia the great power. At the same time he should struggle not only with external enemies (in the center of the narration Tolstoy — Northern, at Kostylev has the Livonian war, Borodin has a fight against a mongolo-tatar yoke in Russia), but also with internal: both Ivan the Terrible, and Peter I are forced to act in the atmosphere of constant opposition, misunderstanding, hatred; they are surrounded by the enemies spinning plots behind their back, preparing attempts at them. And if the external enemy, he is kind of dangerous was, is obvious, then internal enemies of subjects also are terrible that remain in the shadow, governors guess their existence, but not always manage to prevent their actions as the most unexpected are enemies, is frequent — relatives to the tsar, the entrusted people (Peter has a wife Eudoxia, the son Alexey, at Ivan — the prince Kurbsky, Adashev, Sylvester, etc.).

The idea of a plot against the sovereign and his forced fight against conspirators is most brightly expressed in Tolstoy and Kostylev's novels. The space of action of novels is divided into black and white, friends and enemies, personal and others'. With "" to whom the main character trusts he is tender, devoted, unselfish before self-rejection, with "strangers" — is severe, sharp, sometimes — is even tough, but is always fair. Especially difficult for display to the reader from the best side of an event and the facts (for example, oprichnik disorder of Novgorod, Ivan IV's polygamy, Peter's participation in torture of the tsarevitch Alexey, etc.) preventing creation of an integral image of the strict, but fair governor are passed by writers, the best qualities and acts of the hero are described most in detail. Writers pay also much attention to tragic events in the sovereign's life, showing it, on the one hand, vulnerable, vulnerable, and with another — strong, capable to bear strokes of bad luck by the person. Thus it is formed proniknovenno-sochuvstven-

Nov and at the same time the respect for the hero of the work forcing the reader to worry and be happy for it. For example, Ivan IV is drawn by the beautiful family man, deeply and gently loving the first wife Anastasia and sons. V.I. Kostylev convincingly shows that Anastasia's death which became a terrible tragedy for Ivan and caused many rumors that the queen was "exhausted" and also the death of the metropolitan Makari which followed in several years strongly knocked down forces of the tsar taking the sincere loneliness hard. Similarly in the novel by Tolstoy the fact of break in relations of Peter with Anna Mons after news of her treason to the tsar moves.

The main characters are shown in dynamics, in development, writers show formation and transformation throughout life of characters of heroes, their relation with relatives and foes, reaction to progress and failures. Despite abundance of heroes and story lines in novels, writers manage to keep narration clearness. At the same time the "state" subject into which all others are interwoven, first of all — "national" dominates. The "state" subject is inseparable from "national".

The tsar both at A.N. Tolstoy, and at V.I. Kostylev acts as the defender of national interests looking far ahead in prospect, but capable to understand also momentary needs and expectations of the people. Peter I is similar one sailor more, the carpenter, the workman, and Ivan IV ruthlessly struggles with the boyars wishing disintegration of the state on the ancestral lands and principalities, unpunished exploitation of serfs. Understanding of the people, sympathy to it, ability to see the best qualities in the ordinary person is criterion by means of which the author's relation is built (and after it — and the reader) to any given historical figure.

Thus, from sharply negative image of the autocrat (any) — the beginning of the 30th the perspective of display of a subject gradually for the second half of the 30th is transformed to the 20th towards apologetics of the strong sovereign, the idea of a unification of the tsar with the people (and since the end of the 30th — the beginning of the 40th — and church) that is well visible in the analysis of images of sovereigns in the Soviet art and historical Romance philology of the 30th — the beginnings of the 40th

Manuel Smith
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