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The Russian-Ukrainian communications and interferences in development of domestic psychiatry of the XX century



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UDC 616.89 (091)

ROSSIISKO-UKRAINSKIE of COMMUNICATION AND INTERFERENCE IN DEVELOPMENT of DOMESTIC psychiatry of the XX CENTURY

Yu.I. Polishchuk, S.A. Baskakova

Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Psychiatry Roszdrava Federal State Institution

Many pages of history of domestic psychiatry remain poorly studied, insufficiently opened and even absolutely unknown for the younger generation of psychiatrists so far that is an essential gap in their professional education. Knowledge of history of development of domestic psychiatry is necessary for understanding of its main problems existing so far and definition of ways of their further decision. It is important to Russian psychiatrists of the senior and new generations to define what is possible and it is necessary to take from scientific and practical psychiatry of last century and what it is necessary to refuse, having recognized the incorrect or outdated, not meeting modern knowledge and expectations in world psychiatry. At the same time nevertheless it is impossible to be sure that modern knowledge and representations in world psychiatry are the ultimate truth and it is necessary to be guided by them recklessly without the Russian specifics and the Russian scientific traditions.

Development of any science has, as a rule, international character. Interaction of different schools of sciences and the directions is of great importance. That is why in this work we considered important to light, let and not in full, the Russian-Ukrainian communications and the relations in the field of psychiatry which took place in the XX century.

The greatest influence on development of the Ukrainian psychiatry last century, from our point of view, was rendered by two outstanding Russian psychiatrists: Tikhon Ivanovich Yudin and Victor Pavlovich Protopopov.

Tikhon Ivanovich Yudin (1879-1949) after the termination of medical faculty of the Moscow university in 1904-1907 worked as the intern of university psychiatric clinic. Then moved to Kharkiv and worked in the Kharkiv psychiatric hospital "Saburova giving". In 1918-1924 worked in psychiatric clinic of the Moscow university again. From 1924 to 1932 headed department of psychiatry of the Kazan university. In 1932-1937 headed klini-

the chesky institute of the Ukrainian psychoneurological academy in Kharkiv was also her vice president. From 1937 to 1943 directed the Ukrainian psychoneurological institute and at the same time was the deputy director for scientific work of the 2nd Kharkiv medical institute. Since 1943 until the end of life managed department of psychiatry of the 3rd Moscow medical institute. V.P. Serbsky's pupil, T.I. Yudin was one of the most prominent representatives of the Moscow psychiatric school, S.S. Korsakov and P.B. Gannushkin's follower. He was one of founders of the genetic direction in domestic psychiatry. His merit the deep genetic analysis of psychopathic constitutions and establishment of their hereditary communication with psychoses, the analysis of interaction of hereditary and environmental factors in origin of mental diseases is considered. At the first Ukrainian congress of neuropathologists and psychiatrists in 1934 in Kharkiv, T.I. Yudin in the report "Inferiority of the modern concept "neurosises" from the point of view of pathogenetic, clinical and medical and practical" pointed to insolvency of division of diseases on organic and functional. He considered that recognition of neurosises special pathogenetic essence not only built ignorance in nosological unit, but also prevented disclosure of their etiology and pathogenesis. The fundamental monograph "Essays of History of Domestic Psychiatry" published in 1951 in which the history of development of scientific and practical psychiatry both in Russia, and in Ukraine in H1H and in the first half of the XX century is in detail stated became result of its historical researches.

Victor Pavlovich Protopopov, the pupil V.M. Bech-tereva, was born in 1880 in the village of Yurkakh of the Poltava province. After the termination of Army medical college in St. Petersburg in 1906 it was left the graduate student at department of psychiatry which was directed by V.M. Bekhterev. After defense of a thesis and receiving a rank of the privatdozent worked in clinic and V.M. Bekhterev's laboratory, studying

somatic frustration at manic-depressive psychosis. In 1921 headed department of psychiatry of the Perm university and at the same time supervised the work of regional psychiatric hospital. In 1923 V.P. Protopopov moved to Kharkiv where he created department of psychiatry of medical institute which he managed nearly 20 years. Besides, he was the organizer and the director of research institute of clinical psychiatry, the first in Ukraine, and social psychohygiene which was transformed further to the Ukrainian psychoneurological academy. At the same time he directed department of psychiatry and department of higher nervous activity. Since 1944 and until the end of life directed department of psychiatry and higher nervous activity in the system of Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR and headed department of psychiatry of the Kiev institute of improvement of doctors. Was the chief psychiatrist of the Ministry of Health of the Ukrainian SSR. During the Kiev period of creative activity of V.P. Proto-popov it and his pupils conducted complex researches on studying pathogenesis of schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis. Results of these researches allowed it to create the original hypothesis of pathogenesis of schizophrenia which did not lose the value so far. Its essence is that schizophrenia develops on the basis of hereditarily the caused and acquired features of an organism and the identity, in particular, of insufficiency of fermental systems of a brain that leads to accumulation of the toxic products of nitrogenous exchange causing the chronic hypoxia of a cerebral cortex and its gipnoidny states defining the main psychopathological frustration at this disease. Long-term researches of patients with manic-depressive psychosis allowed to establish a number of somatic violations, characteristic of them, which were characterized by a concept of a simpatiko-tonic syndrome (Protopopov's triad). It was paid to them to development of rational etiopatogene-tichesky approaches to treatment of psychoses, in particular, to schizophrenia and TIR much attention. He pointed to absence at psychiatrists of a habit and requirement of pathophysiological comprehension of a condition of patients. V.P. Protopopov always emphasized importance of thorough study of a somatic state mentally sick, features of a metabolism at it. Its instruction on need of eradication of empiricism for therapy mentally sick to make it more rational, pathophysiologically proved, remains relevant so far. V.P. Protopopov created in Ukraine the school of psychiatrists at which the problems of psychiatry were considered and solved in unity with physiology and pathology of higher nervous activity, biochemical and pathophysiological researches. Under it

the management executed 11 doctor's and 25 master's theses. His pupils headed departments of psychiatry at medical institutes of Moscow, Kiev, Kharkiv, Gorky, Izhevsk, Ufa, Novosibirsk, departments at research institutes of Kiev, Kharkiv, Odessa. The name of V.P. Protopopov is born by the Kharkiv scientific research institute of neurology, psychiatry and narcology.

Noticeable influence of the ideas of the Moscow clinical psychiatric school of S.S. Korsakov and P.B. Gan-nushkin on the Ukrainian psychiatry is connected with a name of Yakov Pavlovich Frumkin (1902-1978). He was born in Smolensk. In 1924 graduated from medical faculty of the Moscow university then under the leadership of P.B. Gannushkin worked at department of psychiatry of the university as the intern and the assistant. Then within 43 years from 1932 to 1975 headed department of psychiatry of the Kiev medical institute. Following the principles of the teacher P.B. Gannushkin, Ya.P. Froome-kin deeply got into essence of the psychopathological phenomena, was a thin diagnostician. He developed clinical problems of epilepsy, vascular psychoses, the psychogenius. Works on the organization of mental health services, history of psychiatry, psychotherapy, a technique of teaching psychiatry, a gerontopsikhiatriya are performed. He was a brilliant teacher. Its monographs and manuals are known: "Psychiatric terminology" (1939), "Short differential diagnosis of some mental diseases" (1951), the first domestic "Educational atlas of psychiatry" (1962), "Psychiatry. Tables and schemes" (1977). For many years Ya.P. Frumkin was a member of boards of All-Union and Ukrainian societies of neuropathologists and psychiatrists. In 1974 it was elected the honorary member of All-Union society of neuropathologists and psychiatrists. Awarded ranks of the honored worker of science of the Ukrainian SSR. A number of his pupils headed departments of psychiatry at medical institutes of Ukraine, extending the ideas and traditions of the Moscow clinical psychiatric school.

Alexander Ivanovich (1869-1936) Yushchenko was one of founders of the biochemical direction in psychiatry. Being an honored worker of science of RSFSR, he was a full member of Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR that testifies to his contribution both in Russian, and in the Ukrainian psychiatry. After the termination of medical faculty of the Kharkiv university it some time worked under the leadership of the famous Ukrainian psychiatrist P.I. Kowalewski. In 1901-1915 worked in biochemical laboratory of Institute of experimental medicine in St. Petersburg which was headed by I.P. Pavlov. In 1912 there was its monograph "Essence of Sincere Diseases and Their Biological and Chemical Researches" which opened the new, biochemical direction in scientific psychiatry. After 1915 it

managed departments of psychiatry in Tartu, Voronezh, Rostov-on-Don. Since 1929 worked at the Ukrainian institute of psychiatry and social psychohygiene in Kharkiv, and since 1932 - in the Ukrainian psychoneurological academy which first president he was elected. In the researches it followed traditions S.S. Korsakova and V.M. Bekhtere-va. At the first Ukrainian congress of psychiatrists in 1934, being the Honorary Chairman of a congress, A.I. Yushchenko devoted the report to structure and classification of neurosises. Along with reactive and constitutional neurosises it allocated so-called psychoneurosises. His name was appropriated to the Vinnytsia regional psychiatric hospital.

The big contribution to development of children's and teenage psychiatry both in Ukraine, and in Russia was brought by Grunya Efimovna Sukhareva (1891-1981). It began the professional and scientific activity in Ukraine. In 1917-1919 worked as the intern of the Kiev psychiatric hospital. In 1919-1921 managed section of defective children and at the same time worked as the assistant at medical Pedagogical Institute in Kiev. From 1923 to 1933 worked as the senior assistant and the manager of psychoneurological clinic of Institute of health protection of children and teenagers, was the privatdozent of psychiatric clinic of the 1st Moscow medical institute which was directed by P.B. Gannushkin. In 1933-1935 managed department of psychiatry and children's psychiatry of the Kharkiv psychoneurological institute. In 1935 G.E. Sukhareva defended the doctoral dissertation and headed department of children's psychiatry of the Central institute of improvement of doctors which she directed with a break in the years of war till 1965. Along with it from 1938 to 1969 headed office of psychoses of children's and teenage age at the Central institute of psychiatry of RSFSR, the Moscow scientific research institute of psychiatry which became subsequently. Scientific activity of G.E. Sukhareva was very many-sided. Its first works were devoted to children's pathological imaginations and dynamics of a schizoid psychopathia at children's age. Big recognition got its job on schizophrenia at children and teenagers. Features and regularities of its dynamics taking into account age and individual reactivity were carefully studied. She made the significant contribution to many sections of children's and teenage psychiatry. Its "Clinical lectures on psychiatry of children's age" were republished several times. G.E. Sukhareva in preparation and developing the skills of children's psychiatrists put a lot of effort. She, as a matter of fact, was one of founders of children's domestic psychiatry.

Vladimir Vladimirovich Shostakovich was born in 1898 in St. Petersburg. After the termination of a gymnasium in 1917 arrived on medical faculty of the Irkutsk university with which termination worked as the intern, and then the assistant to department

nervous and mental diseases in Irkutsk. Studied clinical manifestations of lethargic encephalitis. Since 1932, worked in the Ukrainian psychoneurological academy in Kharkiv. During this period studied atropinic psychoses and mechanisms of hallucinations. Defended the doctoral dissertation on the subject "True Hallucinations and Their Mechanisms". Since 1939 headed department of psychiatry of the Kursk medical institute. After war worked at the Crimean, and then Turkmen medical institute. Was engaged in clinical and kliniko-pathogenetic trials of schizophrenia. In 1956-1959 worked at the Kharkiv psychoneurological institute again. From 1959 to 1970 headed department of psychiatry of the Dnipropetrovsk medical institute. Developed questions of forensic psychiatry, medical psychology, rehabilitation of mentally sick.

In the first half of the XX century Kharkiv was, along with Moscow and Leningrad, one of the centers of scientific and practical psychiatry. Vasily Alekseyevich Gilyarovsky after the termination of medical faculty of the Moscow university and an internship moved to Kharkiv where he some time worked as the anatomist in psychiatric hospital "Saburova giving". Exactly there its interest in the somato-psychiatric direction which it developed was created, working then in the Moscow Preobrazhenskiy psychiatric hospital, in psychiatric hospital No. 8 of Solovyov, at Institute of psychiatry of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences which director he was almost until the end of life.

Some time S.S. Korsakov and V.P. Serbsky's pupil Tikhon Aleksandrovich Geyer worked as the psychiatrist in Kharkiv. It arrived to Kharkiv after 7 years of work in psychiatric clinic on Devichye Pole in Moscow. Having returned from Kharkiv to Moscow, T.A. Geyer continued to work as the senior assistant to psychiatric clinic at Devichye Pole as the closest assistant P.B. Gannushkin.

Sergey Fedorovich Semyonov completed postgraduate studies at department of psychiatry of the 2nd Leningrad medical institute and in 1941 defended the master's thesis. Since 1946 managed office at Psychoneurological institute of V.M. Bekhterev. After protection of the doctoral dissertation in 1951 headed department of psychiatry of the Ryazan medical institute. In 1953-1958 managed department of psychiatry of the Crimean medical institute where concentrated the attention on an epilepsy problem. From 1958 to 1964 directed office of the Central scientific research institute of forensic psychiatry of V.P. Serbsky. Since 1964 and almost until the end of life worked as the deputy director for scientific work of the Moscow scientific research institute of psychiatry, developing the biological direction in psychiatry. The greatest merit of S.F. Semyonov yavlya-

the significant contribution to studying a role of autoimmune processes in development of a number of mental diseases etsyatsya. In 1972 there was a monograph written together with his pupils, "Autoimmune processes at congenital encephalopathies, epilepsy and schizophrenia". Besides, it published monographs "Schizophrenia" (1964) and "Visual agnosias and hallucinations" (1965). During the Ukrainian period of the scientific activity it studied a role of the kinaesthetic analyzer and its violations in clinic of epilepsy, schizophrenia and other diseases.

S.F. Semyonov's pupil A.P. Chuprikov after long-term work in the Moscow scientific research institute of psychiatry in 1980 moved to Ukraine and headed department of psychiatry at the Luhansk medical institute. Organized the educational and scientific association "Psychiatry and Narcology" in which continued to develop the new direction according to the "Kliniko-psikhopatologichesky Aspects of Functional Mezhpolusharny Asymmetry and Lateral Methods of Therapy of Mental Diseases" program. On this problem for the short period of time 6 Ukrainian and all-Union academic and research conferences were held and 10 master's theses are defended. In 1992 on the basis of the Kiev branch of the Central scientific research institute of the general and forensic psychiatry of V.P. Serbsky the Kiev scientific research institute of the general and forensic psychiatry which first director was A.P. Chuprikov was created. In the subsequent he headed department of the nursery and forensic psychiatry and narcology of Academy of postdegree education in Kiev.

Considerable influence of the Ukrainian psychiatrists on development of the Russian psychiatry is connected first of all with E.A. Popov, L.L. Rokhlin and A.S. Shmaryan's names.

Evgeny Alekseyevich Popov (1899-1961) graduated from the Kharkiv medical institute in 1924 and chose the specialty psychiatry. For a number of years studied clinical features and pathogenesis of hallucinations. In 1938-1941 managed department of psychiatry of the Kharkiv institute of improvement of doctors. In 1940 defended the doctoral dissertation "Materials to clinic and pathogenesis of hallucinations". Then worked as the deputy director for scientific work of the Ukrainian psychoneurological institute in Kharkiv. From 1951 to 1960 managed department of psychiatry of the 1st Moscow medical institute, having shown uncommon pedagogical abilities and big scientific erudition. Since 1960 until the end of life held a position of the deputy director for scientific work of Institute of psychiatry of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. It was elected the member correspondent, and then the academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Developed the concept of phasic development of hallucinations, made a contribution to studying psychopathology, pathogenesis and therapy of schizophrenia, neurosises and psikhopatiya. Was the chairman

All-Russian and vice-chairman of All-Union society of neuropathologists and psychiatrists.

Leon Lazarevich Rokhlin (1903-1984) graduated from the Kharkiv medical institute in 1925. Since 1931 worked as the associate professor of psychiatry of the Ukrainian institute of improvement of doctors in Kharkiv. Since 1932 managed department of social psychiatry of the 2nd Kharkiv medical institute. Actively developed the psychohygienic and psychopreventive direction. Was the organizer and the president (1934-1937) of the Ukrainian psychoneurological academy. In 1946 defended the doctoral dissertation "Clinic and pathogenesis of traumatic epilepsy of wartime". In 1954-1957 managed department of psychiatry of the Kuibyshev medical institute. Since 1957 within 20 years directed clinic of schizophrenia and within 7 years was the deputy director for scientific work of the Moscow scientific research institute of psychiatry of MZ RSFSR. Since 1978 worked as the scientific consultant at the same institute. L.L. Rokhlin is the author of 6 monographs and over 270 scientific works on questions of psychohygiene and psychoprevention, clinic of epilepsy, schizophrenia, exogenous psychoses, the organizations of mental health services and history of psychiatry. Its monograph "Life and V.H. Kandinsky's creativity" was awarded the diploma of S.S. Korsakov. Under its edition there were 40 collections of scientific works. It prepared 13 doctors and 20 candidates of medical sciences. Was the active organizer of congresses, conferences, symposiums, conducted active work in board of All-Union and All-Russian societies of neuropathologists and psychiatrists, being the deputy chairmen of these societies. To it the rank of the honored worker of science of RSFSR was given.

Alexander Solomonovich Shmaryan (1901-1961) graduated from the Kiev medical institute in 1927, then worked as the manager of office of the Kiev psychiatric hospital of I.P. Pavlov. Since 1932 worked as the consultant of institute of neurosurgery of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences and was the assistant manager psychiatric clinic of All-Union institute of experimental medicine. Actively was engaged in development of problems of neuropsychiatry, in particular, of mental violations at injuries and tumors of a brain. Since 1937 was the research supervisor of the Central scientific research institute of psychiatry of a narkomzdrav of RSFSR and managed neuro and psychiatric clinic of this institute. Since 1951 was a scientific consultant of psychiatric hospital of P.P. Kashchenko in Moscow. The broad popularity was gained by its monograph "Brain Pathology and Psychiatry" (1949). It made a big contribution to development of domestic neuropsychiatry, being one of its founders. So far the neuropsychiatry was issued in the independent direction, despite severe and unfair criticism of its works from ideological pozi-

tion at the integrated session of Academy of Sciences of the USSR and USSR Academy of Medical Sciences in 1950.

Alexander Lvovich Altman (1896-1978) graduated from the Kiev medical academy in 1921. In 1931 it was elected to a position of the senior research associate of the Ukrainian psychoneurological institute in Kharkiv. Since 1935 worked as the assistant to psychiatric clinic of the Ukrainian psychoneurological academy. In 1939-1946 was the senior assistant to department of psychiatry of the Kursk medical institute and the chief psychiatrist of Kursk region. In the subsequent conducted scientific and practical work in the Perm psychiatric hospital, was the chief psychiatrist of the Perm region. The most important contribution of A.L. Altman to psychiatry are researches in the field of clinic of schizophrenia and social and labor rehabilitation of patients with this disease which it conducted in Kharkiv, Kursk and Perm. It summed up the researches in the doctoral dissertation in 1964. He also performed a number of works on history of domestic psychiatry.

needs to be noted how it is obvious from stated that no division into the Russian and Ukrainian psychiatry existed; it was the uniform psychiatry. Here it is only about different psychiatrists, about their contribution to psychiatric science and schools, their influence and interaction.

From 1927 to 1988 8 All-Union congresses and a large number All-Union and respubli-took place

the Kansk conferences and symposiums in which along with the Russian, the Ukrainian psychiatrists took part. In discussions on various issues of psychiatry new representations were formed and there were new scientific ideas promoting progress of domestic psychiatry. After accident on the Chernobyl NPP, both the Russian, and Ukrainian psychiatrists from Kiev, Kharkiv, Donetsk, Zhytomyr participated in collaboration in assistance to liquidators of this accident and all victim. In the next years the Russian and Ukrainian psychiatrists conducted large-scale researches of mental violations in the remote period both at liquidators of accident, and at the persons living in radiation polluted territories of Russia and Ukraine. Ways and tactics of complex medical and rehabilitation actions were developed.

The stated review of far incomplete data on communications and cooperation of the Russian and Ukrainian psychiatrists in the XX century confirms their fruitfulness both for development of psychiatry in Russia, and in Ukraine. The vast experience of cooperation between the Russian and Ukrainian psychiatrists in the XX century shows opportunities and need of similar interaction for HH1 a century, despite approach of a new historical era with formation of the independent states in the territory of the former Soviet Union.

LITERATURE

1. P.V. Biryukovich. To the 100 anniversary since the birth of Victor Pavlo- 3. D.D. Fedotov. Essays on stories of domestic psychiatry. Protopopov's vicha//Zhurn. neuropathology and psychiatry of M., 1957.

S.S. Korsakova. 1980. T. 80, No. 11. Page 1710-1713. 4. T.I. Yudin. Essays of domestic psychiatry. M.-L., 1951.

2. History of the Ukrainian psychiatry. Kharkiv, 1994.

ROSSIISKO-UKRAINSKIE of COMMUNICATION AND INTERFERENCE IN DEVELOPMENT DOMESTIC

PSYCHIATRY of the XX CENTURY

Yu.I. Polishchuk, S.A. Baskakova

In article the main data concerning scientific and practical communications and interaction between prominent psychiatrists of Russia and Ukraine throughout the XX century are stated. It is shown what influence in the field of scientific and practical psychiatry was rendered by the Russian psychiatrists, working at Ukraine, and the Ukrainian psychiatrists, working in

Russia. The contents of this article make a certain contribution to studying history of development of domestic psychiatry in the XX century and show fruitfulness of cooperation of psychiatrists of two countries.

RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN RELATIONS AND MUTUAL INFLUENCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC

PSYCHIATRY IN THE 20TH CENTURY

Yu. I. Polischouk, S.A. Baskakova

This article presents major information concerning scientific and practical relations and interaction between the leading psychiatrists of Russia and Ukraine in the 20th century. It describes the impact of Russian psychiatrists working in the Ukraine and that of the Ukrainian psychiatrists working in Russia. This publication contributes to our knowledge

conceming development of domestic psychiatry in the 20th century and illustrates the importance of cooperation between psychiatrists of these two countries.

Yury Iosifovich Polishchuk is the head of department of mental pathology of late age of Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Psychiatry Roszdrava Federal State Institution, ph. (495) 963-7670

Sofya Aleksandrovna Baskakova is the junior researcher of department of mental pathology of late age of Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Psychiatry Roszdrava Federal State Institution, ph. (495) 963-7670

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