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Category: History

Problems of formation of national elite in Yakutia

a. A. Moyakunova


Work is presented by department of history of Russia of the Yakut state university of M.K. Ammosov. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor Yu.N. Yermolaeva

In article the problem of formation of national elite in Yakutia reveals. Special attention is paid to the first stage - formation of the Yakut national elite from the moment of its origin (end of the XVII-XVIII century). In more detail process of upholding of the rights and the privileges of a local top during which there is its stage-by-stage formation as national elite is considered.

The article reveals the problem of forming of the national elite in Yakutia. Special attention is paid to the first stage of appearing of the Yakut national elite from the time of its genesis (late 17t-18t centuries). The author views in detail the process of assertion of rights and privileges of the local highest ranks, which resulted in its stage-by-stage forming as the national elite.

The elite problem in modern Russia is in a frame of research interests nearly 20 years. The term "elito-logiya" is the Russian innovation introduced for scientific use in the 1980th and which was widespread in the 1990th. This complex cross-disciplinary knowledge integrating achievements of social philosophy, sociology, political science, general history, social psychology. Now in the Russian elitologiya fruitful discussions about are conducted whether there was in Russia a change of elite in the 1990th, about quality of elite, about, whether we will apply the term "elite" to the political leadership of Russia, whether the Post-Soviet elite is the developed social group or it is in the beginning of the formation, about extent of the alienation existing between elite and the people, etc.

The present article is attempt to track formation of the Yakut national elite from the moment of its origin (end of HUP-HUSh of century). This problem only begins to be developed. In the Russian historiography the problems of the concept "elite", its destiny in are considered

symbolical space and in time. In the Yakut historiography there is an exchange of opinions so far: whether "the national elite" was created or not if yes, that in what chronological framework.

Passing to consideration of this problem, it is necessary to begin with the fact that the Yakut tribes living before arrival of the Russian Cossacks did not represent national association. As we know, in the Yakut legends of the 17th century Tygyna and Tygynidov is defined by an era. A.P. Okladnikov called him "the Yakut tsar". On Ya.I. Lindenau's materials, Tygyn, the younger son Munnyan Darkhana became the successor of a title of a ruling sort, toyon-uus. Elder brothers of Tygyn were extremely angry that the father took away from them advantage in inheritance of its rights, and quarreled with Tygyn. The quarrel of sons Munnyan Darkhana caused nervousness in the people. Interstine conflicts between successors Munnyan Darkhana in the second half of XVI and at the beginning of the 17th century led to an era of wars and contentions - kyrgys Uyete1, i.e. it is possible to claim that until the end of the 17th century in Yakutia there was no that social group which it is possible

would be to define how national elite, and there was a so-called top. The fact that there were conflicts because of lands and the leader of all childbirth, speaks about lack at that time of conditions of creation of national association. Intervention from the outside acting through Russian, hitherto the unprecedented "civilized" people which accelerated internal process of consolidation of local tribes which it is possible to call an elementary reflex of self-defense before uncertainty and danger became a historical push. At this moment of self-defense the best people on whom now and the fate of the people will depend in the future are allocated from other weight really.

To consider the fate of the most so-called best people, it is necessary to address typology of elite of the American sociologist D. of Bella2 on whom exist: 1) "elite of blood" (the aristocratic elite corresponds slaveholding and feudal, i.e. "preindustrial", to societies); 2) "elite of wealth" (capitalist elite of "industrial society"); 3) "elite of knowledge" (corresponds to "post-industrial society").

According to this typology in Yakutia by the time of its accession to the Russian state there was a so-called elite of blood who were called "the best people".

Passing to consideration of the put problem, there is a wish to address work And. Kappelera3 where he noted that the Russian Empire since the end of XVII and prior to the beginning of the 19th century extended, subordinating to the power new peripheral territories and increasing thus the heterogeneity. Then in the Russian Empire there was a need of additional settlement of the relations with national elite of again won territories in parallel with settlement of the relations of the center with national elite of earlier attached peripheral regions.

For maintaining integrity of the empire the basic value had how control over the existing elite of the population on the imperial periphery was exercised and as far as possible there was use of their specific qualities to imperial benefit. There was a set of strategy. The most rigid form of control was elimination other etnichnykh peripheral elite by means of physical destruction, deportation or full deprivation of powers of authority. This method was used, as a rule, only during military gaining new territories or military suppression of the insurgent movement. At earlier stage Russia adhered to the strategy of full deportation of elite in the Russian suburban territories (Novgorod, Tver, Pskov). In the middle of the 19th century the same strategy was applied to Muslims of the Caucasus, for example to Circassians who were physically destroyed or compelled to resettlement to the neighboring Ottoman Empire.

But the Russian State not treated all the peripheries so cruelly, for example attaching to the huge territory the most extensive and richest territory of Yakutskaya zemli4 with its native population, the Russian State did not apply as consider most of experts, the military, power strategy of accession, i.e. inclusion of Yakutia in the structure of the Russian state was voluntary. Such loyal relation can be explained as follows: by the time of the entry of Yakutia in the structure of the Russian state the local community did not have that social group which could be carried to national elite. To at least sluzhily, Russian Cossacks the top of local community, i.e. knyazets, did not make the equal competition (for many objective reasons).

However much more often the imperial center resorted to cooperation policy with inoetni-chesky elite by means of which

again attached territories were controlled and coped. A prerequisite to that was the loyalty of the last of supreme authority and a dynasty. The shortcoming of competent persons among prepotent central elite did empires dependent on readiness of inoetnichesky elite to cooperate in spheres of management and control over the periphery and also partially - in military (army) and bureaucratic areas. Therefore, as a rule, behind local elite their rights and privileges (possession of the earth, a local legal system, self-government, freedom of religion) remained. In exchange supreme authority demanded from them execution of military and civil services and also ensuring taxation on places. The strategy of cooperation and a frame of autonomy provided to elite of the periphery were defined and changed in each case individually, for everyone separate suburban territorii5. But these privileges did not concern so-called elite of blood of Yakutia. In the subsequent this at first sight unfair fact will become a starting point for formation of intellectual and political elite. It is possible to assume that process of upholding of these privileges led to stage-by-stage integration of Yakutia into the structure of the Russian state.

Describing the policy of the Russian state, N.N. Dyakonova rabote6 writes in the that from the moment of accession to the Russian state control of the region was exercised according to the all-Russian norms, but taking into account features and an originality of local community. After inclusion of Yakutia in the structure of the Russian state in the 17th century and up to the 19th century there was a process of its integration into new civilization space. Usually in the attached territories former social structures, economic and household way of local community remained, the loyal policy in relation to the local nobility was pursued. According to N.N. Dyakonova,

many researchers consider that "the autocracy had no accurately certain imperial policy, it developed spontaneously, gradually being, mnogovariantno, applied to political, economic conditions of any given region, considering if necessary national peculiarities of local community" 7. Thus, the tsarism pursued rather effective social-national policy, without interfering with process of integration of the national aristocracy into local structures of the power.

Of course, the policy of integration automatically fell on the local aristocracy which, protecting interests some kind of and lands, were forced to hold close contact with alien collectors of a yasak. The rest of the population, hoping for improvement of a situation with collecting an excessive yasak, involuntarily entrusted the fate of integration to a local top. In this crisis situation an important role is played by timely activization of that part of society which consists of the most authoritative, dear people participating in development of norms, defining functioning and development of a social system, and values which are considered as a sample for all society. It or carriers of the traditions fastening, stabilizing society or in other social situations (usually crisis) - the most active, passional elements of the population.

Such person who was allocated from all "the best people" in the middle of the 17th century is the son of the executed Bozeko Tynin Mazara Bozekov who was famous Tygyn's grandson. In 1676 the local rich men Nokto Nikin, the Track Orsukayev at the initiative of Mazara Bozekov submitted to the voivode A.A. Barneshlev the petition about permission it to go to Moscow and to meet with the Russian tsar. Having received consent and being presented to the tsar Fedor Alekseyevich, these three knyazets submitted on January 3, 1677 the petition about judicial pra-

Vakh. It is known that knyazets demanded these rights not only for themselves, but also for all Yakut knyazts. On February 9, 1677 in response to their petition the royal decree allowing participation of toyon in judicial activity followed. According to the decree of the tsar, the Yakut toyona it was authorized to be involved in small lawsuits with the claim sum to 5 rubles. Release them from a yasak it was refused. The refusal of the last says that knyazets, perhaps, asked to exempt them from payment of a fur tax.

In the following, 1678 other royal decree under which the Yakut "best people" were granted the right for participation in collecting a yasak came to Yakutsk. Such decision of the tsar was possible thanks to successful cooperation of the local aristocracy with deputies of the Russian sovereign. So, MAZ-ry Bozekov and other knyazets got partial liberty from the guardianship of the voivode weighing them and Cossacks.

In three years, in 1680, to Moscow again left the same Mazary Bozekov, and with him Borogontsev Chyuka Kapchikov and from Megintsev Chugun Bodoyev accompanied by the corresponding suite. Except rich gifts I reign, knyazets brought with themselves a lot of furs for exchange for the Moscow goods. It is known that only one Mazary Bozekov carried "50 sorok (2000) of sables, a sable fur coat" and so forth. Perhaps, folding of business activity of "blood elite" from this point follows, so, already then prerequisites of emergence of so-called economic elite appear.

During this trip of Mazary Bozekov achieved confirmation of personal privileges: the special royal decree suggested to write it in all cases knyaztsy. Besides, to it and other knyazets the right of court on small affairs and managements of relatives was granted. Also their property rights and privileges were confirmed.

Thus if earlier the Yakut knyazets formally had no judicial rights over the relatives, then in decrees 1677,

It was for the first time offered to 1678 and 1680 to judge Yakuts yasachny collectors at presence of knyazts who acquired the right to participate in collecting a yasak. Some yasachny collectors were forbidden to judge without representation of knyazts.

It is possible to assume safely that Mazara Bozekov's eminence became successive which is the trend which is traced in all existing elite.

So, the great-grandson Mazary Bozekova Sofron Syranov (after the baptism Vasily Veniaminovich Syranov) is known that he achieved a deputatstvo in the Ekaterina's commission on development of the new Code (code of laws) of Russia and as the first the head of the Kanga-lassky ulus.

On October 23, 1768 at a meeting of the commission it was announced the personalized Decree of the empress "about Syranov's acceptance in number of other deputies and about the work to it an appropriate salary as other Yakuts not precisely nomadic, but arrive winter in the dwellings" 8.

As a result of the above-mentioned decree V.V. Syranov made orders of the voters and the commissions are presented. In orders it was written about ruinousness of hunting for a sable whose stocks were exhausted that Yakuts for payment of a yasak should buy sables and foxes from merchants therefore they ask natural yasak to replace monetary. However V.V. Syranov included in the petition only three of all questions: about an underwater duty, about the maintenance of stations on the Irkutsk and Okhotsk paths, about need of transfer of collecting a yasak to the Yakut knyazets. From himself added five new requirements: about need of encouragement of knyazets, about release of foremen and knyazts from payment of a yasak, about the permission to knyazets to go at own expense to capital cities, about strengthening of the judicial rights of knyazts and about that to set off the laid on money which is illegally collected from Yakuts in yasachny payment.

the Majority of proposals of V.V. Syr - it is new the empress Catherine II and the CAR -

with the sky government it was satisfied. As V.L. Seroshevsky writes, the beginnings developed by this commission were the basis for the Yakut self-government and kept till 1896 almost without change. It says about productive work of the deputy of the imperial commission V.V. Syranov.

Thus, the rights coordinated with the Tsar's administration and the privileges of "blood elite" were important sign of formation of national elite and their aspiration to self-government. It was already impossible to stop it.

It is impossible to disregard also the fact that in 1789 in Yakutsk the parish school which was the literacy center in the territory of Yakutia opened. To this event the trip in 1788 to reception to Catherine II of the head of the Borogon-sky Ulus of Alekseya Arzhakova (1739-1834) for delivery preceded it "The plan about Yakuts with the indication of state advantage and the most favorable on-lozheniyev for them".

"The plan about Yakuts" consisted of the description "prezhnyago and nyneshnyago states" Yakuts. In the plan A. Arzhakov put forward the following petitions: about need of establishment of a position Yakut regional the head or the leader. He considered that the last has to be elected from among the ulusny heads or knyazts, just as the provincial leader of the nobility, and has to submit to directly chief governor of a namestnichestvo and its office; about establishment of special court under the name of own Yakut court which part would be the regional leader, the separate ulusny heads and naslezhny knyaz-ets; about release of Yakuts from a duty to pull boats on the rivers, having assigned this duty "to exiled of zakonoprestupnik"; about release of Yakuts also from the maintenance of 36 stations on the Irkutsk path, having replaced them with "the sent Russian people"; about appointment to the post of district police officers of such persons whose "blagopovede-ny in the local region was known" and familiar with language and customs of Yakuts; about not -

obkhodimost of establishment in Yakutsk "schools for the Yakut people which to train in the Russian diploma and other sciences... that it were fit for service public and state and to education of the sorodets from now on"; that it would be necessary to legalize the right of a private property for the earth with transfer it "on eternal possession to the one who at first processed it".

Besides, from the general essence of the put-forward petitions also the fact that the author of "The plan about Yakuts" asked that the empress welcomed the Yakut knyazts and the heads the nobility follows. At the same time he referred to paragraphs 1 and 20 royal "Diplomas to the nobility" of April 21, 1785

The empress Catherine II, having considered "The plan about Yakuts" in the special rescript addressed to the Irkutsk governor general Pil, specified that the choice of the Yakut leader can be permitted, just as opening of school, an institution of conscientious court and appointment of the district police officer if it is possible, from the persons knowing Yakut yazyk9.

Thus, formation of the Yakut national elite is the share of the end of HUI-HUSh of century. During this time the Yakut national elite became the main character of process of integration into the Russian civilization. Without its activity it is impossible to present true national story of those of years.

Despite the small number and unequal position before the Tsar's administration, the national elite which exactly again developed for so short terms was the main organizer and the performer of the major public and administrative and cultural events held in the territory of Yakutia.

In all held events the desire of the local aristocracy step by step is traced, expressing the interests of the relatives, to try to obtain the rights and privileges at which implementation irreversible is an awakening of national consciousness and self-determination.


1 Gogolev of A.I. Istoriya of Yakutia. Yakutsk: Izdat-vo YaGU, 2000. Page 28. 2Bell D. The coming of Post-Industrial Society. N. Y., 1973. P. 454.
3kappeler A. Centre and elite of peripheries in the Habsburg, Russian and Ottoman empires (17001918)//Ab Imperio. 2007. No. 2. Page 21-23.
4 V.I. Pesterev. Pages of history of Yakutia in documents, legends, myths. Yakutsk: Bichik, 2000. Page 10.
5kappeler And. Decree. soch. Page 23.
6dyakonova N.N. The Yakut intellectuals in national history: Destinies and time (the end of the 19th century - 1917). Novosibirsk: Science, 2002.
7remnev A.V., P.I. Savelyev. Current problems of studying regional processes in imperial Russia//the Imperial system in regional measurement. M, 1997. Page 17. 8 Pesterev of V.I. Istoriya of Yakutia in persons. Yakutsk: Bichik, 2001. Page 52. 9 In the same place. Page 55.
Michael Morgan
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