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Artillery museum and historical meeting of the Bryansk local arsenal.



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ARTILLERY MUSEUM and HISTORICAL MEETING of the BRYANSK LOCAL ARSENAL.

G.P. Polyakov

Article is devoted to reconstruction of structure of rare meeting of museum value of the military and artillery XVII-direction of the first half of the 19th centuries. It was created at one of the oldest artillery plants of military industry of Russia - the Bryansk local arsenal founded in 1783. Keywords: Bryansk, arsenal, collection, guns, mortars, Artillery historical museum.

One of the most important directions of development of military industry of Russia of the 16-20th centuries was production of artillery arms. It was concentrated at first on the gun foundry yards, and then - on arsenals. An arsenal initial "establishment for storage of various weapon, a military armor and supplies, and in later and narrow value - technical establishment of artillery department where artillery arms were stored and made." [1]. Till 1808 the arsenals in the Russian Empire were called the foundry yards. Then till 1808 for difference from newly created mobile arsenals the foundry yards (houses) began to call them local arsenals (in documents these arsenals could be called indispensable). As a result of D.A. Milyutin's reforms the term "local arsenals" was finally approved, but except them in the country there were mobile and district arsenals which were not engaged in production of artillery but only they repaired it. Since the end of the 18th century in Russia only three local arsenals worked: St. Petersburg, Kiev and Bryansk. However, legally the arsenal founded in 1812 in Kazan also belonged to local arsenals, but in 1815 the fire destroyed its capital equipment and before closing in 1850 it represented, in fact, a low-power workshop on repair of artillery. At the beginning of the 20th century the local arsenals as the most powerful were carried to the I category, district - to II, and mobile were abolished [2, with. 7].

Bryansk local (it - indispensable or the I category) the arsenal is one of the oldest industrial enterprises of artillery department of Russia, in 2008 celebrated the 225 anniversary [2, with. 6]. From 1785 to 1882 the Bryansk arsenal made hundreds of artillery pieces and accessories to them - gun carriages, machines, fronts, wheels, banniks, priboynik, palnik, etc. Then it focused on production "wheels to charging boxes for field mortar batteries... wheels for easy batteries... spare parts to gun carriages, fronts and charging boxes" [2, with. 70; 3]... "pair vehicles of a sample of 1884... boxes for laying of pieces of artillery property, the accessory relating to vehicles and spare parts, wheels to gun carriages and fronts" [4], lifting mechanisms [2, page 70]. Since 1910 "correction of tools, production and correction of an other equipment of artillery [2, with became the main function of the Bryansk arsenal. 78], and in the years of the I World war production of shells "on the French sample" [4]. Bryansk was chosen for a construction at the beginning of 1783 of an arsenal by no means not accidentally. Here in the Bryansk fortress throughout three centuries the artillery (mattresses and guns peeped serf, regimental, zatinny) - in quantity up to 95 tools constantly was placed. They were served to 168 gunners and the zatinshchik living in Pushkarskoysloboda [2, page 8].

According to the Decree of the emperor Peter I of September 16, 1722 all Russian obsidional artillery intended for capture of fortresses and consisting of heavy tools - the guns and mortars shooting hinged fire was divided into three offices. They (subsequently - obsidional parks) were placed in St. Petersburg, Osereda (later - Pavlovsk the Voronezh province) and in Bryansk [5]. In the Bryansk obsidional park 154 tools were concentrated (14 nine-pood mortars, 40 bronze to eighteen - and twenty four - pound guns and hundred pig-iron mortars of small caliber). They were stored in the territory of fortress "in case of war with Turkey" and on military river crafts were delivered from Bryansk across Desna and Dnieper to the Black Sea to the battlefield. Served the Bryansk obsidional park, supporting its equipment in an efficient state a third bombardier and two kanonirsky companies. Goal-scorers dealt only with mortars the shooting bombs [5]. At this large artillery plant in the 10-50th of the 19th century existed

school of military kantonist where trained younger technicians for the military and artillery plants of "The Russian Imperial artillery" [6].

For the purpose of ensuring educational process at school with presentation and also by an example of "The memorable hall" at the Main arsenal in St. Petersburg the commanders of the Bryansk local arsenal authorized formation and regular replenishment at the plant of a meeting of samples of the artillery trophies and "memorable objects" connected with this type of military forces. Gradually here collections of drawings, samples of military clothes and the equipment, banners, awards and medals cold and firearms and, of course - artillery pieces and other museum objects were formed. Unfortunately, full-fledged documentary materials about this meeting are not revealed yet, but the data which are available at our disposal allow to reconstruct partially the structure of this museum meeting generally in the third quarter of the 19th century and, partly, in 1903

In 1872 to the 200 anniversary since the birth of the emperor Peter I in Moscow the Polytechnical exhibition was open. Its Artillery department was the most successful, it recreated quite full picture of history of development of artillery in Russia that drew attention of a wide circle to one of organizers of an exhibition - to the St. Petersburg Artillery museum (till 1868 - to the Kronverksky arsenal) [7]. All capital and local arsenals of Russia sent the exhibits to an exhibition. After completion of its work all its artillery exhibits came to the Artillery museum in St. Petersburg. They were recorded and described in "Historical catalog C. - the St. Petersburg artillery museum" which by right is considered one of the best for the time [8]. In this catalog also the tools which came on an exhibition and, respectively, to the museum from a meeting of the Bryansk Arsenal are described.

By 1903. The artillery museum which opened as storage of separate monuments of artillery becomes scientific institution and in the Artillery historical museum (further - AIM - G.P.) [7, page 7]. The order of the Head Artillery department of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Empire about transfer to AIM funds of ancient tools and other artillery "dostopamyatnost" was dated for this event. The Bryansk Arsenal also sent to St. Petersburg a small collection from the museum. All transferred by the Bryansk Arsenal in AIM in 1872 and 1903 it was recorded in the "Catalog of an equipment of domestic artillery" published by AIM in 1961 in Leningrad. Before reproducing this list which will allow to restore partly a museum meeting of the Bryansk Arsenal in the 70th of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries we will provide data of the AIM Historical archive. Judging by documents of this archive in 1838 from the Bryansk Arsenal in St. Petersburg the collection of models of tools, in Moscow - in 1846-1847 - a collection of banners and standards [9] which, in turn, filled up AIM funds was "released".

But we will return to "Catalogue" of 1961. At No. 98 in it the bronze trunk of the 24-pound obsidional gun of a sample of 1838 cast on the Bryansk Arsenal in 1843 by the gun master M. Akundinov and which came in 1873 to the Artillery museum [10] appears.

At No. 103 there passes the bronze trunk of a 2-pood unicorn otlshchy in the second half

XVIII century. Diameter of the channel of a trunk - 245 mm, trunk length - 216 cm, weight - 1662.5 kg. Till 1872 the trunk was stored on the Bryansk Arsenal from where came to the Artillery museum [10, page 74].

For No. 132 the bronze trunk of the grivenny gun cast in 1666 by the master Martyan Osipov appears. Diameter of the channel of a trunk - 45 mm, length - 153 cm, weight - 110 kg. In the middle

XIX century the trunk was in the Bryansk Arsenal, and in 1872 came to the Artillery museum [10, page 90].

No. 164 - the bronze trunk of the 3-pound gun - was cast in 1711 in Kazan, diameter of the channel of a trunk - 76 mm, length - 118 cm, weight - 202 kg. Till 1872 it was stored on the Bryansk Arsenal [10, page 103 - 104].

No. 170 is a bronze trunk of the 3-pound gun with a diameter of channel of 76 mm. Length - 141 cm, and weight respectively - 265.3 kg. This trunk was cast in 1734 and till 1872 was on the Bryansk Arsenal [10, page 106].

At No. 250 in "Catalogue" the trunk of the 2-pood mortar cast from bronze in 1669 by the master Yakov Dubinoy appears. Diameter of the channel of a trunk - 265 mm, length - 73 cm, weight - 405.5 kg. The charging Camorra - cylindrical, at a dulny cut - a thickening, below - a cast inscription: "Summer to the 7177th year". On a middle part of a trunk - pins and a cast inscription: "Lil master Yakov Dubina to the weight of 24 pood 30 grivenok of grenades 2 poods". The Arsenal was stored till 1872 on Bryansk [10, page 142].

For No. 251 there passes the bronze trunk of a 3-pood mortar cast in 1669 by Yakov Dubinoy. Diameter of the channel of a trunk - 345 mm, length - 97 cm, weight - 827 kg. As well as previous, the trunk was stored till 1772 on the Bryansk Arsenal [10, page 143].

At No. 255 the bronze trunk 3 1/4 pood mortars, cast in 1698 by the master the Login Zhikharev is registered. Diameter of the channel - 300 mm, length - 97 cm, weight - 78.7 kg. On a dulny part - a cast vegetable ornament with the inscription "No. 1 48 pood 1 f", and below - a cast inscription: "Summer to the 7206th year". On a state part - a cast inscription in a square frame: "Lil master Login Zhikharev". Came in 1872 to the Artillery museum from the Bryansk Arsenal.

For No. 256 in "Catalogue" the bronze trunk of a 3-pood mortar cast in 1698 in Glukhov by the master Karp Iosifovich is designated. Diameter of the channel - 330 mm, length - 97 cm, the weight of a trunk is-865.7 kg. On the dulny part decorated with a cast vegetable ornament, an inscription: "To the kingdom of the prisvetleyshy and velikoderzhavneyshy Sovereign, Tsar and Grand duke Pyotr Alekseyevich vseya Velikiya and Malyya and Belyya of Russia of the autocrat diligence and koshtom yasnevelmozhny sir Ioann Mazepa of the hetman of his favor voyskom Zaporozhskim". On a state part a cast vegetable ornament and an inscription: "Lil this mozhger Karp Iosifovich lyudvisar Glukhovsky. To fate 1698". Came to the Artillery museum in 1872 from the Bryansk Arsenal [10, page 144 - 145].

At No. 261 the front field battery, made on the Bryansk Arsenal in the first half of XIX in, wooden, dyshlovy is designated. On the dyshl it is beaten out: "BR.A.ruble" the Front on a wooden axis and two wooden wheels with an iron busbar, its box is located ahead of an axis, and the box cover flat and is fettered by iron. The front is painted in green color [10, page 147].

No. 282 is a trunk of 1 pound bronze gun cast in 1757. Diameter of the channel - 54 mm, trunk length - 92 cm, weight - 83.2 kg. The tool was on arms of 50 gun Saint Andrew the First-Called frigates which were involved under command of the admiral F.F. Ushakov in battles against the Turkish fleet in 1788-91. In 1852 the trunk was stored on the Bryansk Arsenal, then exhibited at the Polytechnical exhibition at Moscow in 1872 from where it was transferred to the Artillery museum [10, page 157].

The last Bryansk exhibit transferred in 1872 in "Catalogue" will be mentioned at No. 319. It is the bronze trunk 3/4 pound guns cast in 1737 in Siberia. Diameter of the channel - 37 mm, length - 110 cm, weight - 60 kg. The tool, obviously, intended for protection of one of Demidov' plants. By 1852 the trunk was stored in the Bryansk Arsenal from where in 1872 and came to the Artillery museum [10, page 173].

In 1903 from "The museum of military old times" of the Bryansk Arsenal came to AIM:

1. No. 97 according to "Catalogue" is a trunk of the 24-pound gun cast from bronze in 1788. Diameter of the channel - 152 mm, length is 318 cm, weight - 2163 kg. Since 1852 the trunk was stored on the Bryansk Arsenal [10, page 71].
2. No. 112 is a trunk 4 1/2 pood mortars, cast from bronze in the first half of the 18th century. Diameter of the channel - 318 mm, length is 112 cm, weight - 1037.8 kg. Till 1903 it was stored on the Bryansk Arsenal [10, page 80].
3. No. 184 is a trunk of the 3-pound gun cast from bronze in 1788 in. St. Petersburg. Diameter of the channel - 76 mm, length is 143 cm, weight - 240 kg. In 1852 the trunk was stored on the Bryansk Arsenal, and in 1903 came to AIM[10, page 111].

Thus, the data which are available at our disposal allow to claim that on the Bryansk Arsenal no later than 1838 there was already a military and artillery historical meeting of objects of museum scale. Here trunks and models of tools, banners and standards were stored. Nine rare trunks of tools and mortars of 1666-1757 and a field battery front of the first half of the 19th century in 1872 were transferred to the Polytechnical exhibition and to the Artillery museum from here. By 1903 this meeting was transformed to "The museum of military old times" from where three more cannon trunks made in the 18th century were transferred to AIM

Most likely, the range of exhibits of this museum was not exhausted by above-mentioned monuments of material culture at all. Out of doubt, the whole military and historical complex including both the cold, and fire person-portable weapon which was on arms of the Russian gunners and also samples of a military uniform and an award was stored here. Apparently, tools were stored under the open sky on territories of the factory yard at the Foundry house, and other exhibits - on the third floor of this building, in three rooms where kantonist were trained [11]. The further history of "The museum of military old times" of the Oryol department of the Russian military and historical society is not known to us.

of The artide is devoted to the гесо^гисйоп of the œmposition of the rare sopesyop of the museum signif^an^ of the military-artillery direction of the XVII - the first part of XIX œntury. It was formed at one of the oldest artillery plants of Russian military industry - the Bryansk 1ocO arsenal, whkh was founded in 1783. The key words: Bryansk, arsenal, collection, guns, mortars, artillery, historical museum.

List of references

1. Rossiyskayamuzeyny encyclopedia. T1. M, 2001. Page 34.
2. V.A. Bobkov, G.P. Polyakov. Bryansk arsenal (1783-2008): historical essays. Bryansk, 2008.
116 with
3. State arkhivbryansky area (further - GABO). T. 221. Op. 2. 42. NN. 11-11

about.

4. S. Vysochansky. Our family. Its past//World of Paustovsky. No. 15-16. 2000. Page 15.
5. A.P. Barbasov. Registration of artillery as type of military forces of the Russian regular - the 1st quarter of the 18th century//Collection of researches and materials of the Artillery historical museum. Issue 4. L. 1959. Page 106.
6. Bobkov of V.A. Kantonista of arsenals of the Russian Defense Ministry (on materials of the Bryansk arsenal)//the Russian collection (Works of department of national history of antiquity and the Middle Ages of BGU). Issue 2-3. Bryansk, 2006. Page 76-82.
7. Fighting relics. Guide to halls of the Military and historical museum of artillery, engineering troops and troops of communication. M, 1983. Page 6.
8. V.N. Zaborsky. Experience of development of catalogs on funds of the Artillery historical museum. Issue III. L., 1958. Page 382; Historical catalog C. - the St. Petersburg artillery museum. SPb. T.1, 1877; t.2. 1883; 4.3. 1889.
9. Guide to historical archive of the Artillery historical museum. L., 1957. Page
43.
10. Catalog otechestvennoyartilleriya equipment. L., 1961. Page 71.
11. GABO. T. 221. Op. 3. 116. L. 131 about.
12. Historical archive of the Military and historical museum of artillery, engineering troops and troops of communication. T. 11.

About the author

Poles G.P. - the candidate of historical sciences, the associate professor of the Bryansk state university of a name of the academician I.G. Petrovsky, sweet.er@mail. Hz.

Nina Palmer
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