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EMIGRANT AND SOVIET HIGHER SCHOOL of the 20th. (Experience of comparative characteristic)

str. 1 of 13 E.N. Evseev


(Experience of comparative characteristic)

Revolution and Civil war split Russia in two. In this article one aspect of existence two Rossy - the general and special in the higher education system on the example of legal is considered.

In the Soviet Russia the Bolsheviks first did not interpose in the matter of the higher school. In the summer of 1918 the turn reached also it. In October, 1918 the decree which cancelled scientific degrees was adopted, defined an order of dismissal of professors and teachers who worked as 10 and more years and announced the All-Russian competition on vacant places. [1]

The Soviet higher education system which developed during the postrevolutionary period proceeded from the following basic principles: 1) class approach to training of specialists in all areas, 2) as a result of it is revision of training programs and plans towards expansion of public disciplines according to theoretical installations of Marxism, 3) elimination of university autonomy and introduction of the state control of the higher school.

Legislatively similar basis of work of higher educational institutions was fixed by the charter of the higher school approved by the Soviet government in September, 1921. It defined three main tasks facing the Soviet higher school "in connection with the changed socio-political conditions". Those were: 1) training of experts in various branches of the national economy and scientists of higher education institutions and research establishments, 2) development scientific

research, 3) transformation of higher educational institutions into the centers for distribution of scientific knowledge among a people at large which interests in all activity of higher educational institutions have to become priority. [2]

Winter of 1918/19 of the power closed law departments of the universities and legal offices of historical and philological faculties where the opposition to Bolsheviks was the strongest. They were replaced with faculties of social sciences.

In November, 1920 SNK issued the decree "About reorganization of teaching social sciences in higher educational institutions of RSFSR" in which it suggested Narkompros "to accelerate replacement at faculty of social sciences of the Moscow university of outdated lecture courses, to establish more exact compliance of new curricula of offices of faculty to functions of those narcomats for which experts prepared". The university undertook to distribute new programs on a response to the interested narcomats. In February, 1921 the Central Committee of RCP(b) indicated to Narkompros the need of development of curricula of "educational institutions of the main types, and then courses, lectures, readings, interviews, a practical training". [3] Thus, autonomy of higher education institutions in drawing up training programs was completely liquidated, and this work was transferred to the jurisdiction of Narkompros.

On March 4, 1921 I. Lenin signed the decree "About establishment of the general scientific minimum obligatory for teaching at all higher schools of RSFSR". According to this decree the curricula of higher education institutions without fail joined public disciplines: 1) development of public formations (formational approach in assessment of historical development of society), 2) historical materialism, 3) proletarian revolution (historical prerequisites of revolution, including an imperialism, its forms and history in the context of history of the XIX-XX centuries in general and labor movement in particular), 4) a political system of RSFSR, 5 thereby was approved) the organization of production and distribution in RSFSR. The general scientific minimum according to personal instructions of Lenin included a course according to the plan of electrification. [4]

This minimum on social sciences was obligatory for all higher school irrespective of a profile and specialization. At faculties of social sciences the objects entering a minimum were studied in expanded volume.

Except a minimum of public disciplines, in higher education institutions the minimum on natural sciences was entered. As obligatory objects, including in pedagogical and legal educational institutions,

the physics, space physics (including geophysics), chemistry, biology was established.

As it was noted in the Soviet scientific literature, "introduction of the general scientific minimum helped to form the correct Marxist-Leninist approach to the phenomena and events of public life at students, struck a blow to idealistic perversions in science. Again entered objects, and first of all historical materialism, had to open laws of development of society before students, show indissoluble connection of the revolutionary theory with practice of socialist construction, help to acquire the Marxist-Leninist theory which offers only the correct explanation to historical reality and arms with truly scientific understanding of history of mankind". [5]

As an example we will consider the processes happening in two largest Russian universities - Moscow and Petrograd.

Changes happened in the context of the general course towards change of teaching objects of a humanitarian cycle after 1917. The initiative in this case belonged to the Commission on reform of the higher school created in March, 1918 at Narkompros by RSFSR headed by the scientist-astronomer who was the chairman of the Moscow Council P.K. Shternberg. On April 20, 1918 the commission submitted the preliminary report in which, in particular, it was specified that first of all law and istorikofilologichesky departments have to be reformed. On the basis of this offer Narkomprosom it was decided to close legal faculties and on their basis to create faculties of social sciences (BACKGROUNDS). [6]

On December 28, 1918 Narkompros published the resolution on closing of law department at the Moscow university and about the organization on its base of the faculty of social sciences (FSS). On the basis of the same resolution of department of international law, the financial right, political economy and statistics were transferred to historical offices of historical and philological faculties. The department of the state law was transformed to department of the Soviet legislation. All other departments of the right were abolished. It was entrusted to socialist Academy of social sciences to develop curricula of the Moscow BACKGROUND. [7]

Teaching the right was transferred to legal and political office. Professors and teachers of law department tried to defend the principles on which former curricula were made, opposing introduction of new "class" courses. So, in the minutes of council of yuridiko-political separation from the September 26, 1919 signed by professor M.M. Vinaver, the member of cadet party it was noted that the course "Working Right and History of the Working Legislation" included without fail in the curriculum of the BACKGROUND is "excessive". [8]

Narkompros, under the pretext of "specialization", significantly narrowed the volume of teaching all-legal disciplines, such as Roman right, international law, right history, ecclesiastical law. Due to reduction of teaching these objects the historical materialism, a political system of the Soviet republic, economic policy of the Soviet power were entered. The fact that, despite numerous attempts to introduce the new principles and objects of teaching in the BACKGROUND system of the Moscow university, on it reading courses according to old curricula of the abolished law department continued caused discontent of party and state tops. The XII conference of RCP(b) noted that anti-Soviet currents systematically try to turn "department of higher educational institutions into a tribune of barefaced bourgeois promotion.," [9]

Such new objects as the Soviet public administration, criminal and administrative law of RSFSR, the Soviet legislation on work, the state control also were entered into the program of BACKGROUNDS; in connection with transition to the new economic policy to a separate course the Soviet cooperative right was allocated. In essence, these objects represented the objects altered in connection with new social and political conditions - the civil and state law, criminal law and process, and on specific industries of the right.

At the Petrograd university, unlike Moscow, reorganization of legal education dragged on a little, but the general direction was the same.

This reorganization was accompanied by disputes on prospects of the higher legal education in the Soviet Russia. As a result the question of the fate of law departments of higher education institutions rose again on

agenda in the fall of 1918

Having received in general positive opinions of the National commissariat of justice, the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, Supreme Soviet of the National Economy and other departments, Narkompros on the report M.N. Pokrovsky adopted the resolution on closing of law departments "in view of perfect obsolescence of curricula of law departments. and also full discrepancy of these plans both to requirements of scientific methodology, and requirements of the Soviet institutions for highly qualified personnel". The socialist academy of social sciences was entrusted to develop the curriculum of faculties of the social sciences created instead of the abolished law departments till January 15, 1919. [10]

On March 3, 1919 Narkompros approved the provision on BACKGROUNDS according to which they were created instead of the former law departments and historical offices of historical and philological faculties and consisted of three offices: economic, political and legal and historical.

[11] The purpose of BACKGROUNDS "distribution and development of the ideas of scientific socialism and materialistic outlook in all fields of social science" appeared. And also the demand of processing of curricula of law and historical and philological departments according to the changes which happened in the political organization of society was made.

Nevertheless, despite the approved structure, the BACKGROUND of the Moscow university by the beginning of 1921 included not three offices as it was supposed, and six: political and legal, social and economic, philosophical, historical, philological, an ethnologo - linguistic.

At the beginning of the 20th in structure of BACKGROUNDS there were changes again. At the Petrograd university the political and legal office was transformed to legal. The new standard plan of legal office developed in 1921/22 academic year (actually it presented itself(himself) the plan of law department revived in the defective form), proceeding from accurate practical orientation, established two cycles - judicial and administrative. Students of office took all basic courses and there took place all seminars irrespective of specialization which was carried out within special courses and special seminars. The number of obligatory disciplines included courses: origin and development of public forms, historical materialism, political economy, finance, economic policy of RSFSR, statistics, socialism history. At the same time new courses on legal disciplines were developed: state, administrative,

economic, civil, labor, land, criminal and international law, civil and criminal proceedings. Courses on criminal ethnology, forensic medicine and psychiatry, criminalistics, etc. belonged to special objects of a judicial cycle and also an administrative cycle - on the organization of labor unions, the theory and practice of cooperation, the state control, administrative justice. [12]

At the same time the "brigade and laboratory" method took root into studying disciplines in all higher education institutions of the country that concerned also legal office. Its curriculum included much less disciplines, than the plan of political and legal office, and differed in more accurate specialization. In it derogations from the standard plan were allowed, division of courses and seminars on obligatory and optional was entered and also disciplines, by the curriculum not provided were entered (the general theory of the right, the cooperative right, criminal policy, children's homelessness, children's crime and fight against it). [13]

On it changes at the former law department of the Petrograd (Leningrad) university did not stop. In May, 1924 the decision on closing of legal office by October 1, 1926 was made. Students of a last year were granted the right to finish training in the BACKGROUND curriculum of the university. Enrollment of students on legal office stopped.

Unlike the Soviet educational standards at the higher school and approaches to training of specialists, in emigration by the Russian scientists and professors the task of maintaining traditions of Russian of the highest including legal, the education, training of specialists necessary for future, freed from the Bolshevism Russia was set. The Russian emigrants did titanic work on creation in the centers of dispersion of law departments. Teaching at law departments was constructed on a sample of law departments of the Russian universities of the pre-revolutionary period, and in the educational practice they relied on provisions

The charter of the Russian universities of August 23, 1884 (with the subsequent changes made to it till October, 1917). As well as in the Soviet educational system, the principle of compliance of knowledge which will be gained by graduates of law department, their subsequent practical work was the basis. But, as use of the gained knowledge in Russia was in the future supposed, teaching was based on a combination of studying the Russian national right and the legal system of the Western European states including the Czechoslovak republic. [14]

Unlike the Soviet legal education focused on an exception of teaching the "bourgeois" right and optional studying law of foreign states, students of emigrant law departments got acquainted with basic provisions of the Soviet right, and emphasis was placed on its derogations from the beginnings which are been the basis for the right of the western states.

The history of the Russian law department in Prague (RYuF) in this respect gives complete and concrete ideas. At the initiative of Educational board of "Committee on ensuring education of the Russian students in the Czechoslovak Republic" the question of the organization of training of emigrant youth at a course of the Russian law department, usual for pre-revolutionary Russia, was raised. The basis of a new higher educational institution took yuridiko-economic section of humanitarian office of the Russian high additional courses which on the faculty members approached full law department of the pre-revolutionary Russian universities. [15] Legal education in higher educational institutions of Czechoslovakia and other countries had mainly national character. However the Russian young people living in hope for possible activity in Russia required strong knowledge of historical features and conditions of development of Russian right.

After the long debate about the place of its work, the status, etc. on May 18, 1922 in Prague the ceremonial opening of the Russian law department was held. [16] And on July 13, 1922 there was a solemn acceptance of RYuF under protection of Charles University in Prague. [17] The faculty was open first of all thanks to organizing talent and energy of his first dean - Pavel Ivanovich Novgorodtsev.

He was born in Bakhmouth in 1866. Upon termination of the Bakhmutsky gymnasium with a gold medal he entered in 1884 the Moscow university on natural office of physical and mathematical faculty, but same year passed to law department. Having finished it, it was left at the university for preparation for a professorial rank on department of the encyclopedia and legal philosophy with contents from the sums of the ministry. At the end of the 1880th. Novgorodtsev approached V. Vernadsky and S. Oldenburg social and liberal circle ("Priyutinsky brotherhood") and took part in a number of its public initiatives. Having passed master examination, he was sent abroad. Having devoted itself to studying philosophy and the right, he spent years of an academic trip in various European centers.

Since 1896. Novgorodtsev gave lectures at the Moscow university as the privatdozent. In 1897 he defended the dissertation on an academic degree of the master on the subject "Historical School of Lawyers, Its Origin and Destiny". In 1902 he defended at the St. Petersburg university the dissertation on an academic degree of the doctor of the state law on the subject "Kant and Hegel in Their Exercises about the Right and the State". In 1903 he was appointed extraordinary professor, and in 1904 - ordinary professor of the Moscow university. In 1901 - 1902 together with representatives of "the critical direction" in the Russian Marxism he became one of originators and the editor of the collection "Idealism Problems" (1902), laid the foundation synthetic liberal socialist

to "the idealistic direction" in the Russian liberation movement.

Since 1904. Novgorodtsev consisted the member of council of "The union of release", at the end of 1905 entered a party of cadets, and in March of the same year was co-opted in its Central Committee. In 1906. Novgorodtsev was elected the deputy of the I State Duma from the Ekaterinoslavsky province. Due to the impossibility of combination of teaching and deputy activity he left department, however continued to remain at the Moscow university as the privatdozent. After dissolution of the Duma he signed "The Vyborg appeal" about civil disobedience in protest at dissolution for what he underwent imprisonment. As a result of it it did not receive confirmation to a post of ordinary professor and remained the privatdozent of the university. Owing to disagreement with the policy of the Ministry of national education, together with other professors he left the university in 1911

After that Novgorodtsev concentrated the activity on the Moscow commercial institute,

in which he was the first director and also headed department of the state law. This institute began the existence with modest commercial courses in 1906. Thanks to exclusive energy of Novgorodtsev in 1912 the courses were already approved by the government as a higher educational institution which totaled more than 6 thousand listeners. He remained the permanent director of institute till 1918

In the years of World War I Novgorodtsev was an active employee of the All-Russian union of the cities and the Moscow representative of the Special meeting on fuel. After the February revolution he was elected professor of the Moscow university again, became the founder member of "League of the Russian culture", its Interim committee in Moscow. The Central Committee of cadet party elected again as a member, Novgorodtsev took definitely right position, considering necessary establishment of military dictatorship for prevention of the state accident. In 1918 he became one of initiators of creation and the head of a number of the anti-Bolshevist underground organizations in Moscow. Then he took part in the collection "From Depth". Having happily avoided arrest in May, he passed to illegal status and soon left Moscow. Till 1920 he lived in the south of Russia and was not engaged in teaching activity. Because of fear he refused to do much harm to the family which remained in the Soviet Russia from occupation of official posts and from public statements though secretly participated in development of bills of the Special meeting at the commander-in-chief of VSYuR general A.I. Denikin. In 1919 he participated in conferences of cadet party in Ekaterinodar and Kharkiv. In 1920 he was elected ordinary professor of the Taurian university. He taught there only several weeks and after the termination of a winter semester of 1920 went to a foreign business trip. However after falling of the Crimea and evacuation of army of the general P.N. Wrangel it could not return to Simferopol.

Some time Novgorodtsev lived in Berlin, cooperated in the Rul newspaper, participated in work of local cadet group. Together with some other the Russian professors he was invited to Prague where he headed yuridiko-economic courses which in the spring of 1922 were transformed to the Russian law department.

On the calling Novgorodtsev was a philosopher of the right and the historian of political doctrines. At department of the Moscow university it got B.N. Chicherin's inheritance. Novgorodtsev's talent unlike Chicherin was shown in ability to get thinly into the present. He felt pulse of life and was able not to tear off theories from "a life tree". From his first scientific performances these abilities were found. Its first thesis about "Historical school" of lawyers was devoted to plots purely academic. However he chose the question connected with the most acute vital issues concerning then lawyers, philosophers of the right and gosudarstvoved. At that time in jurisprudence "the crisis of positivism and sociologism" began. The philosophical idealism was widespread in the Western European countries in the field of philosophy. In jurisprudence the existence of the wakening philosophical aspirations was felt. All these new trends were caught in the work by the young scientist. In his first book two ideas which played a big role in the history of a thought of Russian intelligentsia were distinguished: idea of philosophical idealism and idea of revival of the natural right. This success put Novgorodtsev in ranks of ideological heads of the Russian intellectual thought. He understood legal philosophy as science about a public ideal. All its main scientific works were devoted to this problem in its different aspects.

Novgorodtsev's works can be divided into two groups: purely historical and devoted to studying ideals modern to it societies. In the lectures which came out at different times in various editions he stated the history of political doctrines.

Other group of its works was devoted to studying political and public ideals of that time. Most of all Novgorodtsev the problem of the constitutional state and a problem of socialism and anarchism interested. Work "Crisis of modern sense of justice", and the second - "About a public ideal" was devoted to the first subject. In the first work sensitive issues of the latest democratic statehood were raised. Novgorodtsev was not negative to democracy, but showed relativity of her political knowledge. He considered that "democracy is not a universal panacea from all social disasters, but one of ways of political system having the advantages and the shortcomings". He considered the most important and vital issue fight against absolutization of public ideals, detection of their relativity. The main idea "About a public ideal" was expressed in its work in a formula: "crash of the idea of the earthly paradise" or "replacement of the idea of final perfection with the beginning of infinite improvement". "Such replacement, - Novgorodtsev said, - unsealing absolutism temporary historical ideals, at the same time turns

a thought to original laws and problems of historical development". From this point of view the author investigated also modern to him socialism.

The habitual current of scientific occupations was broken by rough events of those of years. Novgorodtsev did not finish the second volume of the manuscript "About a public ideal" which was devoted to studying the theory of anarchism and socialism. This manuscript for long time was withdrawn from the author. During this period the turn towards religion was outlined in Novgorodtsev's views. From his point of view, that circumstance that the matter approved it in a thought of "the idea of the crash of the earthly paradise" was especially considerable. In the Russian religious philosophy it found confirmation of this thought, generally at Slavophiles, Homyakov and Dostoyevsky. Due to the problem of religious communication and church this thought arose in new lighting. In this direction he was going to formulate final conclusions of the second volume of the composition "About a public ideal". He considered that in this work he had to tell the most important and considerable that was not told to them yet.

The latest works of Novgorodtsev were written on the hottest and topical political topics. The author gave to these works the nature of objective scientific character. Novgorodtsev was a brilliant stylist and also had the gift of excellent statement. All this combined provided to his compositions great success. Since 1917 the first volume "About a Public Ideal" left three editions.

From the very beginning of its scientific activity around Novgorodtsev people who studied at him and led together with him the general scientific life united. Its influence on young Russian philosophers and lawyers was huge. Views of the scientist had a great influence on the Russian liberal intelligentsia. He was one of the few theorists of the Russian liberalism. It is necessary to establish the fact that the socio-political program of the Russian liberalism was deeply reflected and proved in Novgorodtsev's works.

Not less remarkably and the fact that Novgorodtsev had the exclusive administrative gift which he showed throughout all the academic and public work. The commercial institute which it directed was one of the best higher educational institutions of Russia. On arrival to Prague Novgorodtsev at once was engaged in creative organizational work. All complex academic organization in Prague, in the general opinion, was a result of its energy and its plans. The Russian law department in Prague became a pet project of Novgorodtsev. There are his words pronounced when opening RYuF: "Among not clear circumstances, in the face of the unknown future, we begin business which first of all demands the firm, quiet and sure management, big tension of forces and big belief in Russia. Establishing our faculty, we firmly believe that time when Russia with a spontaneous and uncontrollable force addresses the legal beginnings when, exhausted and suffered much, it comes to need to build the state and social being on the strict and exact beginnings of the right comes. We want our young people, these future builders of Russia, firmly to acquire that thought that among one thousand ways destroyed and thrown in the ruined Russia in it such important and necessary way as a way of the right, a way of quiet development on the basis of freedom, legality and justice has to be restored first of all".

He wanted RYuF to be exclusively higher educational institution which was sweeping aside from itself any propaganda purposes. Novgorodtsev spoke about it: "The Russian law department should not be either school of a counterrevolution, or school of revolution; it will be only school of science".

Novgorodtsev was very exacting and strict dean. He got love and respect both from colleagues, and from students. He had a gift to unite people. He created among teachers and students spirit of solidarity and devotion to faculty.

He did not manage to carry out many plans. On February 5, 1924 his application for temporary release from the dean's duties owing to a disease was considered. And on April 23, 1924 Pavel Ivanovich Novgorodtsev died. [18]

For RYuF institution Novgorodtsev made the draft of the charter of faculty in general corresponding to the Russian university charter of 1884, but with some amendments caused by special conditions of foreign existence. [19]

In the charter the purpose of the organization of faculty was defined: creation of conditions for receiving the finished legal education. The charter defined that RYuF is under authority of the Czechoslovak government, and directly management of faculty belongs to the dean and a meeting of faculty.

The dean was elected from the professorial structure of faculty and approved by the order of the minister of education of Czechoslovakia for one year. Belonged to its duties: implementation of the management and control of work of a teaching department and compliance of teaching to the curriculum, behind observance by students of regulations, behind execution by employees and teachers of their duties, behind meetings of faculty and expenditure of money. Besides, the dean resolved issues of transfer of students on faculty, etc.

The staff of faculty included the dean, professors, associate professors, privatdozents, lecturers and the staff of educational and auxiliary structures. The meeting of faculty consisted of all professors and associate professors under the chairmanship of the dean. The competence of a meeting included the affairs which are subject to the final decision of faculty and the affairs submitted for consideration or the statement of the Ministry of national education of Czechoslovakia. It gathered as required the dean of faculty. At meetings there had to be all members of meeting; the absence was allowed only for a good reason with the obligatory notice about the dean's volume and also with entering of the reasons of absence in the magazine of a meeting. Election was solved on a position balloting. Absent had the right to transfer the sphere to one of members of meeting, having in writing notified the chairman on this voice transfer before balloting. In school hours of year the meeting considered the cases in presence entrusted to it at a meeting not less than a half of all members of meeting. Urgent cases were considered also at smaller structure, but at such meetings cases of elections at a position, theses and statements in academic degrees were not considered. All questions, except for election to positions, were solved by a simple majority vote. At division of voices the opinion of the chairman of the meeting equally was accepted.

The board of faculty consisted of three ordinary professors who were elected by faculty and were approved by the Ministry of national education of Czechoslovakia and also dean of faculty who was a chairman of the board. The board disposed of finance, resolved issues of the edition of scientific works, was engaged in enrollment of students on faculty, assignment, etc.

of RYuF under the leadership of the dean had to care for completeness, the sequence and correctness of teaching objects and also to take all measures for granting an opportunity to students as appropriate and full volume to listen to all subjects of the curriculum which were a part of the tests which are coming for end of a full course. Curricula were considered by a meeting of faculty and were submitted for approval of the Ministry of national education.

On completion of training the students were subjected to tests in the legal commission. Students to whom eight half-year were set off were allowed to tests and the final certificate is granted. Rules of tests in the commissions and requirements to examinees were approved by the minister of national education of Czechoslovakia. The persons which passed tests gained diplomas of I or II degree signed by the dean and the secretary of faculty.

At faculty also tests on academic degrees, competitive tests on a grant, test and semi-course tests were carried out.

At faculty two academic degrees - the master and the doctor were appropriated. The persons which submitted the diploma about the termination of faculty were allowed to test on degree of the master. For receiving degree of the master, besides tests, it was necessary to defend the dissertation publicly. For receiving degree of the doctor the public defense of a thesis was required.

The persons which finished classical gymnasiums and who gained diplomas of those could become students of RYuF. [20] The finished real schools or other average educational institutions had to pass additional examination in Latin. For revenues to faculty it was necessary to present originals (or certified copies) the documents certifying or on the termination of average educational institution, or on training in one of the Russian higher educational institutions. Those who had no those documents had to hand over a colloquium at law department for a course of average educational institution or the corresponding semester of a higher educational institution. Those who

wished to be auditors, had the right not to submit the academic documents and not to hand over colloquiums. At reception on RYuF no restrictions neither on national sign, nor on citizenship were allowed. Those who did not consist dependent on "Committee on ensuring education of the Russian students in Czechoslovakia" and were not recognized by faculty poor, had to pay 60 Czech korunas a half-year for the right of training (the living wage in Prague made then 600 kroner a month).

All students of faculty were obliged to take not less than three examinations within academic year in the objects listened by them as a necessary minimum. Besides, it was necessary to submit the term paper in coordination with the teacher. In other objects it was necessary to hand over semi-course tests in the next examinations. Students of the 4th course were exempted from the term paper, but had to pass tests on a practical training on civil and criminal law. For achievement of the best effectiveness in the course of training it was recommended to take from the objects entering a minimum examinations in history of the Roman right and political economy on the 1st course, on history of the Russian right and dogma of the Roman right - on the 2nd, under the state and financial law - on the 3rd. But it was impossible to take examination in dogma of the Roman right before of examination in history of the Roman right, examination in administrative law - before examination in history of the Russian right, etc. All students who arrived on RYuF after March 1, 1923 had to take examination in Czech. The program for this subject was approved by board of Educational board at "Committee on ensuring education of the Russian students in Czechoslovakia". [21]

Studying the Russian national right was the basis for teaching on RYuF. Along with it much attention was paid to the legislation of the Western European states both in the field of public, and in the field of private law. Special attention was paid on the right of the Czechoslovak republic. Besides, students got acquainted also with bases of the Soviet system, with the instruction on the main derogations of the Soviet orders from the beginnings which are been the basis for the right of the civilized states. In parallel with teaching the main objects the program of training included such disciplines as logic, the Russian history, psychology and others that corresponded to curricula of some Russian universities. Special attention was paid to economic sciences. Except a general-theoretical course of political economy which was given in parallel the academician to P.B. Struva and professor V.A. Kosinsky at faculty the special course of history of economic exercises and also a number of incidental courses was given.

Lectures on the first three courses began in May, 1922, and with fall of 1922 - on all four courses. [22]

Treated the main objects studied by students on the 1st course: general theory of the right, history of the Roman right, history of the Russian right and political economy. Lectures on the general theory of the right were given by professor A.N. Fateev, in the past - professor of the Kharkiv university and Commercial institute, the master of the state law, professor of the general theory of the right and history of legal philosophy. Along with lecturing he organized seminaries on which a practical training with students was conducted. This of seminaries arose in 1922. Its work consisted of three stages: 1) the territory, inorganic and organic conditions - the physical environment of the legal phenomenon, 2) the population, nadorganichesky conditions of the legal phenomenon, 3) structure and a form of the legal phenomenon, morality, religion, the maintenance of a legal ideal. At this scheme all participants seminary for the solution of objectives studied the actual material about the countries elected by them. The choice of the country was caused by knowledge of language of the country and direct acquaintance to it.

Lectures on history of the Roman right were given by professor M.M. Katkov and professor D.D. Grimm. Mikhail Mefodyevich Katkov was a doctor rimsk?

Richard Harry
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