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The first release of mining engineers of Siberia

sypy, both organization of mining operations, and product sales. Opening and development of a numerous placer, and then and Distlerovsky radical quartz - the gold and sulphidic field which operation was repeatedly tried to be begun within almost all the 20th century became one of important results of life and business of this worthy family. The field it is a part of the Olkhovsko-Chibizheksky gold field of East Sayan in the south of Krasnoyarsk Krai [3]. A.G. Distler's fate developed tragically. In 1938 he was unfairly accused of participation in the counterrevolutionary terrorist organization and then shot in Moscow. Rehabilitated in 1957

From seven graduates of the Omsk men's gymnasium six people were entitled the mining engineer, among them there are Leonid Pavlovich Stepanov (the son of the teacher of the Omsk district school, is later than the inspector of national schools Pavel Vasilyevich Stepanov), Dmitry Aleksandrovich Strelnikov and future first Siberian academician Mikhail Antonovich Usov.

The new office of institute was attractive to graduates of the Chita gymnasium (6 people). From them Alexey Vsevolodovich Arsentyev and Sergey Mikhaylovich Kolesnikov became mining engineers of the first release. The mountain Office of TTI in 1901 was chosen for themselves by graduates Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tashkent, Blagoveshchensk, Voronezh, Kostroma, Perm and other gymnasiums of Russia [2]. The number of the students who got secondary education in a gymnasium made 41 people (38.9%).

Unlike the gymnasiums giving classical education and preparing for entering a university in pre-revolutionary Russia the network of real schools which graduates could continue training in the highest technical and commerce and industry educational institutions was developed. In 1901 on Mountain Office of TTI, graduates from 31 real schools of Russia arrived: Ekaterinburg (4 people), Samara (3 people), Vyatka (4 people), Tyumen (3 people), Orenburg (3 people), Kazan, Sumy, Voronezh, Troitskosavsky, Perm, Kaluga, Morshansky, Saratov, Smolensk, Oryol, Yeysk, Mitavsky, Tver, Komissarovsky, Odessa, etc. [2]. Five graduates of the Tomsk Alekseevsky real school came on Mountain Office to the first set, but any of them could not graduate from institute by 1908. The number of the students who got secondary vocational education in real schools made the 55th persons (51.9%).

Technical schools of a system of the Ministry of National Education trained technicians for the industrial enterprises. On Mountain Office of TTI of the first set, graduates of Komissarovsky, Krasnoufimsky and Irkutsk industrial schools arrived. Number of students, a floor -

chivshy secondary education in industrial schools, makes 4 people (3.9%), in theological seminaries and agricultural schools - on 2 (2%) and also 1 graduate of commercial school (1.3%).

The first students of Mountain Office of TTI were divided by religion as follows: orthodox 86.8% (92 people), Jews - 4.7% (5 people), Lutherans of 2.8% (3 people), Catholics of 2.8% (3 people), the Armenian-Gregorian belief of 1.9% (2 people) and 1% (1 people) the Karaite [2]. The Christianity and especially Orthodoxy was the main religion among students. As well as in other higher education institutions of Russia, in TTI there was a norm of reception of representatives of the Jewish nationality (up to 5%). On Mountain Office she was stood, but in general on institute was broken. It was promoted by progressive views of the management of institute, starting with his first director E.L. Zubashev, and not really strict requirements from the Ministry of National Education to performance of this norm in the Siberian higher education institution, remote from the central cities, [4]. Besides religion, these data allow to judge somewhat and the national list of the first students of Mountain Office.

Students were divided by belonging to estate as follows: children of petty bourgeoises of 25.6% (27 people); children of officials of 19.8% (21 people); children of peasants of 15.1% (16 people); children of noblemen of 11.3% (12 people); children of merchants of 9.4% (10 people); children of clergy of 6.6% (7 people); children of officers of 4.7% (5 people); hereditary and personal honourable citizens of 3.8% (4 people); children of Cossacks of 2.8% (3 people); foreign subject 0.9% (1 people).

Children of noblemen, officials, clergy, honourable citizens and merchants made 50.9%. These students have an understanding of need of a good education, motivation to study and common cultural development were put in childhood, and influence of family was very great. More than a quarter of the arrived students belonged to estate of petty bourgeoises. It were, mainly, children of city handicraftsmen, small traders, house owners.

Though Siberia in the first quarter of the 20th century was in large part the country outskirts of Russia, the number of country children in TTI was small (10...13%), on Mountain Office a little big (15.1%). Generally it were young people who really wanted to graduate and had rather good abilities to study. The student biography of M.A. Usov is indicative in this regard. To get an education and to become the expert in the business, not only abilities and sufficient general development of the young man, but also organization, high diligence and independence were necessary.

These lines young Mikhail Usov fully had. Years of study in Omsk very precisely

to nyaka charitable lotteries, concerts on which all population of the city was notified were arranged. Such actions were carried out with the most active participation of student's society. But all this for most of students was very little, about a half of students were forced to earn additionally. Many taught private lessons, others worked as loaders, officials, technicians at the railroad and not numerous enterprises of the city. They did not get grants, paid for training, lived on private apartments in different districts of the city. Among them quite often there were mass diseases. All this in combination with shortcomings of educational process significantly influenced duration of training [9].

For this reason and also on some other the reasons (poor progress, failure to pay, transition to other higher education institution, etc.) 81% of students of the first set of Mountain Office could not graduate from the institute in time.

The first release of the mining engineers of the Tomsk Institute of Technology of the Emperor Nicholas II who had training on the basis of the 5-year term of training took place in 1908, with the delay for one and a half years caused by events of revolution of 1905. Ranks of mining engineers received 20 people on three specialties: mining, miner and prospecting and geological. Only those students who completed a full course of TTI, i.e. after passing all obligatory examinations in the objects by the general special and general education, all works in laboratories were allowed to protection. Degree design, with public protection of projects which were carried out, as a rule, on the basis of educational offices and laboratories of institute and on materials of a work practice was a closing stage of formation of the engineer and in those days.

For carrying out protection of degree projects, works and assignment of a rank of the mining engineer the examination (test) committee approved by the Minister of National Education was appointed. Meetings of the test commission of Mountain Office took place on February 6, April 26, on May 24 and on December 20, 1908. In spring half-year the test commission worked in the following structure: the chairman is a professor V.A. Obruchev, members are professors S.Yu. Dobor-zhinsky, A.A. Potebnya, L.L. Tov and D.P. Turbab and teachers V.A. Rogozhnikov, M.P. Rybalkin, P.K. Sobolevsky and A.V. Ugarov. In autumn half-year the structure of the commission was a little changed: the chairman-professor V.A. Obruchev, members are professors I.I. Bobarykov, S.Yu. Doborzhin-sky, E.L. Zubashev, A.V. Lavrsky, T.I. Tikhonov, L.L. Tov and teachers M.P. Rybalkin and P.K. Sobolevsky.

Theses and projects of students of the first release of GO were carried out in a geological office and metalgraphic laboratory. Rukovo-

professors V.A. Obruchev, L.L. Tov, T.I. Tikhonov, teachers M.P. Rybalkin and V.A. Rogozhnikov and also the laboratory assistant P.P. Gudkov were ditel of theses.

Students of prospecting and geological specialty were engaged in the theses on petrography consisting in processing of material on any certain group of rocks or of the small area.

All six graduates in 1907-1908 performed works under the leadership of professor V.A. Obruchev on the following subjects on this specialty: A.V. Arsentyev "Granites, syenites and gneisses of Southwest Transbaikalia" (on V.A. Obruchev's collection); N.Ya. Verevkin "The field of magnetic iron ore of the mountain High in the Urals" (on own collection); N.S. Morev "Porphyries of Southwest Transbaikalia" (on V.A. Obruchev's collection); I.Z. Mochalov "Diorites, diabases, a gabbro and Narita of Southwest Transbaikalia" (on V.A. Obruchev's collection); N.S. Penna "Fiolita, trachytes and andesites of Southwest Transbaikalia" (on a collection of professor Obruchev); M.A. Usov "Dzhair and Urkashar's granites in the Western Dzungaria" (on materials of the Dzungarian expedition of V.A. Obruchev in which M.A. Usov participated in 1906 and 1909).

Students of mining specialty executed and defended degree projects: N.I. Kalitayev and D.A. Strelnikov "A research of recoverability of iron ores of the Theological district and experience of use of electric furnaces like Negayesh for this purpose" (hands. Ven. V.A. Rogozhnikov); F.V. Karpov presented the project of the domain plant (hands. Ven. M.P. Rybalkin and prof. T.I. Tikhonov); V.P. Potemkin "Critical research of the most common ways of definition of sulfur in chuguna and steel" (hands. Ven. V.A. Rogozhnikov); K.A. Selishchev and F.V. Yankovsky "Influence of copper on cast iron" (hands. prof. T.I. Tikhonov); L.P. Stepanov "A research of concentrates from begunny factory of the Berikulsky mine from their mineralogical and chemical composition and applicability to them a cyanic method of processing" (hands. Ven. M.P. Rybalkin). Data on the projects executed by students Avraamo-vy, Akimov and Petrov are not revealed.

Students on miner specialty executed the following degree projects: S.M. Kolesnikov "About recoverability of gold from clean kolchedan of the Berikulsky mine, by means of potassium cyanide depending on fineness of separate parts and about chlorination of the burned kolchedan on Platner's way, Munktelya and Newbury Waugh-tena" (hands. Ven. M.P. Rybalkin); Nor. Languages "Explootation of the gold-bearing field" (hands. prof. L.L. Tov). There are no data on the projects executed by graduates on miner specialty Vlasovy Vytnovy and Zagoryansky.

cooking 1871, in 1892 graduated from the Kazan geodetic school. Before receipt in TTI worked as the field instructor. In 1909-1913 managed a mining part of the Feodosiyevsky mine of the Lensk Gold-mining Association. Since 1914 served on Suchansky coal mines, in 1915 it was attached to management of mines for technical classes. In 1906, being still a student, offered a small collection of books in TTI library.

A.V. Arsentyev in student's years (1902) participated in a petrosearch expedition of V.D. Ryazanov from the Irkutsk mountain management on Baikal. After the termination TTI he conducted researches along Krugobaykalskaya Route railway, worked as the geologist at the Transbaikal Mountain management; in 1920 entered the structure of the Irkutsk office of Central Office of Industrial investigations. Since 1923 - the senior geologist of DV of office of Geological Committee, studied an uglenosnost and oil-bearing capacity of Pribaykalsky district, a geological structure the island of Olkhon, taught at Mountain faculty Far East go-


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sudarstvenny university. In the 30th it is professor of the Novocherkassk industrial institute and the head of the department "Fields and investigation of minerals" (1936-1937; 1943-1946). Was exposed to repressions (it is arrested in 1938, is justified on court in 1940).

the Mining engineer N.S. Morev in 1910 consisted on Mining-and-geological management with sending out on business in the order of JSC Bryanskikh of coal mines and mines.

In 1908 at the Tomsk Institute of Technology the foundation was laid for release of highly skilled mining engineers, experts on mining, miner and prospecting professions for the huge territory of Asian Russia. At the same time it is appropriate to note that graduates of many Siberian higher education institutions which are carrying on and developing the Tomsk traditions belong to the Siberian school of mining engineers, except Tomsk "technologists" and polytechnicians. From Tomsk remember pioneers in Kemerovo and Irkutsk, in Novokuznetsk and Krasnoyarsk, in Khanty-Mansiysk, Chita and other cities.

7. Dmitriyenko of N.M. Vytnova//Business elite of old Siberia: historical essays. - Novosibirsk, 2005. - Page 65-71.
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11. Professors of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Biographic reference book. T. 1 / Author and sost. A.V. Gagarin. - Tomsk: NTL publishing house, 2000. - 300 pages

Arrived 27.03.2009

Tamara Garcia
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