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The North Caucasian labor unions and their role in cultural life in the 1920th years -

a blagodarnost for really invaluable information about Paramonov' family, about the fate of the large publisher who left so noticeable mark in the history of the Russian book business.

The scientific library of the Rostov state university collects and carefully stores editions & lt; Don Speech, become today a rare book.


1. S.V. Kosheverova, M.N. Tarasova, T.V. Bondareva. The catalog of Don Speech publishing house of N.E. Paramonov in Rostov-on-Don. Rostov N / D, 1999. Page 139 - 159 (press reviews of books of Don Speech publishing house).
2. Proletarian revolution. 1927. No. 5. Page 231.
3. V.G. Lidin. My friends - books. M, 1976. Page 324.
4. M.P. Batorgin. Before court of royal autocracy. M, 1964. Page 215.
5. O.V. Budnitsky. The history of "National will" in ideological fight of the first Russian revolution//Revolutionaries and liberals. M, 1990. Page 274.
6. A response about "the Catalogue...", (Los Angeles) sent by fax by E.N. Paramonov (N. Paramonov's son) from the USA on April 21, 2000
7. _ O.V. Budnitsky. "File" on Paramonov. From Rostov

to Los Angeles//the Foreigner. 2002. No. 8.

8. From E.N. Paramonov's letter to S.V. Kosheverova. On May 15, 1993 USA. Los Angeles.

Zone scientific library of the Rostov state university On March 4, 2003

© 2003 S.A. Chuprynnikov


The known Lenin thesis about transformation of labor unions into tutors of broad masses of workers gave the chance to treat it quite widely. From the first days of establishment of the Soviet power in activity of the trade-union organizations by the main become "unusual" for them in a certain measure of function and a task: holding campaigns and actions (weeks, ten-day campaigns, months of transport, front, sick and wounded Red Army man, etc.), elimination of illiteracy, creation of a system of technological and vocational education, organization of club, library, kruzhkovy, political and educational, advocacy and cultural and mass work. All this turned trade-union movement, according to L.D. Trotsky, into "the propaganda and mobilization organizations" [1]. These "unusual" functions and tasks of labor unions were need, especially in the 20th, but at the same time became also their trouble.

Activities of labor unions of the North Caucasus (Don, Kuban and Stavropol Territory) for formation of socialist culture in general, to education, education and rise in cultural level of masses in particular are of great historical interest. The works [2] performed on these questions light and open the separate sides of the problem, and the available huge actual material in the State archive of the Rostov region (6.5 thousand units of storage of fund r-2287 - documents of the North Caucasian regional council of labor unions, many of which were not introduced for scientific use yet), certainly, represents the richest field of activity for researchers.

After the October revolution labor unions, having become as a result of rigid pressure of RCP(b), "kommuni-

stichesky in essence", undertook a huge share of draft work on cultural politically education of masses. In it they proceeded from the Lenin instruction on impossibility "to put educational work outside the context of policy" [3].

Participation of labor unions in various political campaigns, organizatsion-, but - ideological ensuring performance of the actions held by party and the Soviet government, development amateur (to a certain framework) creativity of workers, international, atheistic education, the adoption of value orientations of ideology of socialism was put in the forefront.

It was implemented through broad practice of lectures and conversations, collective readings of newspapers, magazines and other literature. The important place was taken by holidays of work, a lecture concerts, "live" newspapers on revolutionary themes in which not only enthusiasts of amateur performances, but also workers who were present at them took part. In the "weeks" of strengthening of the professional movement spent at this time, meetings, * on which along with questions of history were obligatory, the theory and practice of trade-union movement reports on political and educational tasks were made.

The revolutionary rush and enthusiasm of a cultural and educational work of labor unions in the first months of the Soviet power was shown in desire and attempts to capture everything at once. The resolution of the I conference of the secretariats and representatives of boards of labor unions of the Armavir department of December 28, 1920 is characteristic in this regard: "To seek to open as soon as possible working clubs in which to organize lectures, papers, interviews, to create libraries and reading rooms, but from -

nyud not to be fond of statement • performances and handicraft kruzhkovshchina. The theater has to be used as propaganda and educational means, selection of plays has to correspond to those tasks which face working class; Before each performance the paper about value of the author and that play which is put has to be read. The structure of reading rooms and mobile libraries" is necessary [4]. In practice of a cultural and educational work, meetings, meetings which purpose - the greatest coverage of masses are high at this time. The Temryuk bureau of labor unions in the report on cultural and educational activity of November 29, 1920 reported: "Meetings are organized 2-3 times a week. In local theater weekly meetings performances, in the most part are free for members of labor unions" [5]. The similar picture was noted in Ekaterinodare by the representative of the All-Russian union of metalworkers Filippov in August, 1920: "The labor union narsvyaz held 2 meetings (160 people), metalworkers — 1 meeting (300 people), builders - 8 meetings (960 people), food industry workers - 3 meetings (270th persons), water-transport workers - 3 meetings (1200 people)" [6].

A mass and effective form were general meetings of workers. Them * so-called non-party conferences were a version popular. Also propaganda courts - the dramatized "judicial" trials on which various phenomena of life were publicly criticized or approved had success. In many working clubs, reading rooms, oral or "live" newspapers were regularly put. Usually they included several sections: the front line devoted to the most important events of a present situation, the political feuilleton, the section of revolutionary poetry, the chronicle of cultural and educational work, questions and answers.

The organization of cultural leisure went through development of kruzhkovy work. In the 1920th the quantity of circles quickly grew. In 1926 on all clubs of their North Caucasian edge was 1362, in 1927 - 1704, and in-1928 - 2213. Prevailing, even, one may say, suppressing among them were choral, musical, drama and sports. Theatrical circles were available in 90% of clubs, musical - in 70%, sports - in 65%.

Working clubs organized various propaganda campaigns: weeks of the front, the sick and wounded Red Army man, fight against fuel crisis, epidemics, the help to starving, developed evident propaganda, conducted profdn, tours, put performances, performances, etc. In September - November, 1924 only in clubs of Krasnodar 114 profdny, 23 evenings, 87 performances, 30 concerts, 5 exhibitions, 30 children's performances, 10 lectures, 14 film sessions were spent: only 446 various actions which were attended by 66,754 persons [7].

A specific place in cultural and political education of workers was held by theaters, the museums, cinema. Most of them became free. On labor unions, obligations for distribution of tickets in theaters, concert halls, the organizations of excursions in the museums and on exhibitions laid down.

From the beginning of the New Economic Policy the rent of theatrical institutions was allowed. By the end of 1921 most theaters and movie theaters turned into maintaining various organizations and private traders. And as a result, which was especially promoted by the last circumstance — penetration on the drama and variety stage of frank hack-work. Since 1922, repertoire committees from representatives of political educations, political control of GPU, labor union Rabis who controlled statements began to work at places, approving the repertoire.

Works of scenic classics became a basis of the repertoire of folk theater: A.S. Griboyedov, A.N. Ostrovsky, A.P. Chekhov, F.M. Dostoyevsky, Lope de Vega, V. Hugo, Zh. - B. Molière, etc. Also the first Soviet performances were put: Trenev's "Pugachev's Rebellion", "Mechanic and chancellor" Lunacharsky.

Time of the beginning of the 1920th brought new theatrical genres to life. The short playlet propaganda material which was born in the years of civil war on a topic of the day became very popular. Everywhere there were propaganda and variety collectives of "a blue blouse". Musical culture grew.

Labor unions paid much attention to development of cinema. During the recovery period in the North Caucasus the number of film projectors constantly increased, and by their 1927 there were about 400. The cinema occupied the lion's share in cultural events of trade-union cultural institutions. In summertime under film sessions 20 - 25 days a month were allotted. Only in August, 1927 in the North Caucasian region about 1400 film sessions with coverage of 655 thousand people were held. In the conditions of the New Economic Policy in a pursuit of profit on screens the stream of products of private domestic-owned firms and foreign movies, prototypes of modern western cinema products rushed: "Break the head", "Lady-gangster", "The night express", "The priestess of a sin and death", "Five nights of mad passion", etc. The first Soviet movies which were seen by the gross audience were revolutionary contents: "Arsen Dzhordzhiashvili", "In the back at white", "A cross and a Mauser", "Stepan Halturin", "His appeal". They had great success with proletarian masses. "Red little devils", Aelita and one of the first Soviet comedies "Papirosnitsa from Mos-selproma" were popular.

of Complexity of distribution of film business irregularities of supply with pictures, the competition of private movie theaters consisted in the high rolling price of movies. The North Caucasian kraysovprof determined the maximum prices for use of movies. The cost of the ticket for workers was established in 10 kopeks.

After the termination in 1925 of practice of leasing of spectacular institutions theaters and cinema completely turned into maintaining political educations and labor unions.

In the second half of the 1920th the screen was strongly won by products of the Soviet studios. With success the movies "Battleship Potemkin", "Descendant Chinghiz Khan" which are fallen in love to masses were shown,

"The house on Pipe", "Mutiny", "Mother". Also educational films "During a Harvest", "Iron Horse", etc. began to be shown

Ruin in the national economy, difficult financial position, during the recovery period had significant effect on attendance of clubs, theaters and cinema. On average, per each 10 thousand members of labor unions the attendance of clubs fell from 250 people in 1921 up to 199 in 1922 [8]. Labor unions corrected a situation, providing privileges and providing free visit of cultural institutions by workers. Such orientation in activity of labor unions caused counteraction from political-prosvetovsky structures. The last in the conditions of the New Economic Policy gained the income from functioning of movie theaters and circuses and therefore tried to limit the increasing number of exempts - representatives of workers (so-called "working strip"),

In October, 1924 the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions together with Glavpolitprosvet drafted "The charter of working club". His main idea - unity of workers and development at them "class consciousness", strengthening of "communistic education", eradication of traditions, skills, concepts of bourgeois ideology.

After the XIV congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) which adopted the special resolution "About a role of labor unions" in which transformation of clubs into the centers first of all of political education of masses persistently was required to labor unions it was imputed a duty more widely to use mass forms of political and educational work as driving belts from party to masses. However the North Caucasian labor unions adhered to the point of view which can be characterized as almost opposite: "... not to spread culture and not to overload the worker with political education". In the resolution of the 2nd regional cultural meeting (1926) the following installation was given: "Improvement of maintenance of a cultural and educational work should not mean transformations it in study, and clubs - in educational institutions. The forthcoming period has to pass under the sign of the further organization of rest and entertainments" [9]. Such statement of question did not find understanding from the party organizations. Saturation as its political and ideological aspect reckoned as "improvement" of a cultural and educational work with strengthening in them a Stalin wing. The Armavir district committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in December, 1927, having heard the report of county council of labor unions, pointed out weakness of political education of masses and obliged to strengthen it due to reduction of cultural and pleasure actions [10]. On same paid attention and the Kuban district committee of party [11]. And the XIII Don district party conference (1927) made the decision to focus attention on a cultural and educational work of the party and trade-union organizations and to consider it not as "tightly special, and main type of mass work of labor unions" [12].

Industrialization and the collectivization which followed it gave to all cultural and educational work of labor unions still big political orientation. The cultural and educational work began to reconstruct

on the basis of a party slogan "facing production". From the trade-union organizations holding actions "on communistic education in a close combination to political and educational work and involvement of broad masses of workers in socialist construction" was required [13].

On April 1, 1929 the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee "About cultural and educational work of labor unions" was accepted. In it it was highlighted that in a cultural prosvetrabote of labor unions the main direction - explanation to the mass of the political line of party, education of the socialist relation to work. In May, 1929 in line with this resolution of bureau of the North Caucasian regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) considered the question "About a Cultural and Educational Work of Labor Unions" [14]. The requirement of its reorganization was issued in the decision to oblige labor unions to organize at the enterprises professional collectives (by the principle of agitkollektiv) and to provide significant increase in club network of circles and courses of political-education and production character. &

Clubs began to hold actively those events which first of all mobilized masses for performance of a promfinplan and brought up the socialist relation to work.

The production drummer becomes the central figure in cultural institutions. Galleries of portraits of the best leaders with the description of their production victories began to get a job in clubs, for them special boxes and ranks in auditoriums were allocated. Widely the evenings meetings of drummers and old experienced workers devoted to single economic and political affairs extend. Sharply the number of lectures on political subject increased. According to 109 clubs, only in 3 months 1933 them it was read over 1000. At the same time club institutions began to pay more attention to the organization of cultural leisure. In some clubs of Rostov, Krasnodar and Stavropol its such form as bases of one-day rest for the best drummers extended.

In the studied years the labor unions actively worked also in such direction as international education. The international congresses in which preparation and carrying out hundreds of workers were involved were a common form in it. During them the history of revolutionary movement of the certain countries was studied, international communications arose and got stronger. Production drummers could only be delegates of such congresses. As a result of one of intercongresses in the mine of Artyom in the Shakhty district the connection with the American miners from Pennsylvania was established.

It should be noted that the North Caucasian labor unions had quite broad communications with the working organizations of many countries. The region was visited by working delegations from Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, Belgium, Switzerland. In 1929 the region was visited through the unions by working delegation even from far Australia. Strong, friendly from -

carrying were established with the Union of red veterans of Germany. This organization considered North Caucasian kraysovprof the chief and received great assistance from labor unions of edge. The vice-chairman of the union Willie Leov was invited for participation in work of the IV regional congress of labor unions. The fact that only at the enterprises of Rostov in 1931 14 circles on a learning of foreign language were organized was result of the enhanced attention to international education. In them 195 members of labor unions from which 129 were workers [15] studied. •

Having become communistic in essence, labor unions could not be away from relationship with church. To fall of 1926 in the North Caucasian region there were over 1800 churches, 909 sectarian groups, 1644 mosques in which 8.5 thousand priests served. In mountains there lived 20 sheikhs, 70 thousand people considered themselves myurida.

If at the beginning and the middle of the 1920th the labor unions were not engaged in actively atheistic education, including it in business of party bodies and the union of atheists, then with expansion of the grass-roots collective-farm movement and reorganization of cultural and educational work this site becomes one of the main in their activity. The Lenin instruction that "our promotion it is necessary was the basis includes also promotion of atheism" [16]. The trade-union organizations aimed at carrying out offensive atheistic promotion, formation of shots of militant antireligioznik. At a sack-totdelakh of district sovprof the special paid antireligious work instructor was allocated, and in primary professional cells the wide voluntary asset was created. The curriculum of regional professional school joined not less than two classes a decade in a subject: "Antireligious work at the enterprises". Trade-union committees were recommended to strengthen control of expenditure of the means provided for antireligious promotion without allowing their misuse. Various forms were used, and the content of the held events was filled with the Soviet value orientations. Most at this time carrying out in trade-union clubs of the anti-Christmas and anti-easter campaigns which were taking place under the direct management of regional party committees became widespread. In days of these religious holidays the trade-union clubs worked to three - five o'clock in the morning, carrying out to a counterbalance to church services "new" Soviet ceremonies, performances of "live newspapers", etc. Often it occurred more than busily, trampled on moral foundations of mentality of the people. In this regard the program of carrying out anti-easter week in one of the largest Rostov clubs — labor union of workers of public catering of Lozovsky is submitted indicative. Week passed from April 6 to April 16, 1927. During it for "explanation of class content of religious ceremonialism and derivation

broad masses from participation in it" it was planned to create at club a cell of the union of atheists and a constant corner of the atheist, to organize an exhibition of antireligious literature in library, to issue special issue of the wall newspaper, to carry out propaganda for a subscription to antireligious literature, to raise funds for construction of the Atheist aircraft.

At all artificiality and persistence of the carried-out work, with its command providing, the necessary result nevertheless was available. Quickly the number of the union of militant atheists grew, the authority of this organization created in 1925 amplified. If in 1928 in it 18 thousand members of labor union consisted, then in 1931 they were 210 thousand

Particular importance was attached to participation of the trade-union organizations in re-election campaigns of Councils, their "cleanings". Labor unions of Don, Kuban and Stavropol Territory in the first half of the 1920th tried not to take part in the last. For example, in July

1925 Mr. Kubokrsovprof distributed to chairmen of district boards the instruction in which suggested "not to take any part in the commissions on cleaning of the Soviet device and also any consent to cleaning not to give and the representatives to any meetings of the commissions on cleaning not to send" [17]. From the second half of the 1920th the questions of re-elections of Councils constantly were in sight of district allied bodies. They carried out enormous organizational and political and mass work. So, during the re-election campaign of 1928 - 1929. North Caucasian kraysovprof discussed at first its value on a regional orgsoveshchaniye, and then - repeatedly at a meeting of presidium. For control of the work course by regional bodies the survey of 11 okrsovprof was carried out and reports of 4 regional boards of the unions and 14 FZMK are heard. For direct elections of 5 workers of the device KSPS were sent to districts. Similar work was carried out by all trade-union organizations, up to primary. 1

Trade-union club institutions, red corners actively were involved in preparation of re-elections. The allied organizations distribution of the scenarios published in the typographical way on re-election subject, release of film slogans about tasks of labor unions in this case practiced. So, kraysovprof released for club theatrical circles of a performance "Proletarian intuition" and "The report of the City Council" with a circulation of 400 copies everyone.

During the campaign musters of the unions and summonses of their each other for the best holding re-elections were organized. For participation in re-elections of village councils the labor unions sent the members to the village. To one of campaigns only of Rostov and Krasnodar it was sent the 140th persons. The special activity was gained by this work after adoption in October, 1930 of the relevant resolution of Presidium of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions [18]. In 1931 52 crews created kraysovprofy, and 130 — regional boards of the unions participated in re-elections of councils. Actively worked

the trade-union organizations in the commissions on identification of the so-called lishenets (who did not have electoral rights). Only in 10 large cities of edge by them it was created at electoral commissions of 942 such commissions, and in the regional center at shoe factory of Mikoyan 100 people of lishenets are revealed.

In the next years, starting with the 1930th, re-elections of councils - a necessary and obligatory element of high political activity of labor unions. Nonparticipation or insufficient participation was considered as derogation from the general line of party, misunderstanding of importance of the moment, manifestation of opportunism, etc. In 1934. Krasnodar gorsovprof in party style ordered to all groups of companies and FZMK to report: "About study of the appeal of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions about elections to councils and about implementation of the resolution of presidium of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions on a competition of trade-union organizations on the best preparation for the VII congress of Councils. Out of the competition, - it was specified further, - any trade-union organization. To report results of study of the address and inclusion in a competition in gorsovprof" [19].

By the beginning of the 1930th the role of radio increases in political propaganda of the allied organizations. Still in

1926 . Three days a week were provided to the Kuban okrsovprof for carrying out reports and information in a city broadcasting center. In 1928 in the North Caucasian region there were two broadcasting centers and 8,200 radio receiving stations, and in 1932 was planned to create 55 new broadcasting centers, having installed 60 thousand radio receivers in apartments and public places. Radio meetings, musters between the cities, areas, collective farms, state farms, radio meetings on the current economic and political campaigns at which the leading and ordinary professional workers spoke entered practice of work профорганизаций&прочно. Even more this work was strengthened and became systematic in the second five-years period when in August, 1933 the secretariat of the North Caucasian kraysovprof made the decision on the organization of monthly five times professional broadcasts.

The important place in political and educational and mass agitation work of labor unions belonged to the press. The Soviet trade-union press begins the formation in the North Caucasus in 1921. In the spring of this year there was first number (unfortunately, not remained) the magazine of Kubano-Chernomorsky regional council of labor unions "Working Life". In the same time the "truda Golos" newspaper of the Novorossiysk okrsovprof begins to be issued. At the end of 1921 the mass trade-union newspaper KubChersovprofa and the Southeast sovprof "The worker's voice" appears. Subsequently it was abolished in connection with administrative-territorial redrawing of the map of the USSR and creation of the North Caucasian edge with the center in Rostov-on-Don. Leaving at first once in a decade, and a bit later - once a week and then - three times a week, it had circulation to 6.6 thousand copies. KChSPS gave it continued financial support. The newspaper lit inner-union life, gave critical evaluation of work kulturno-masso-

vy departments of labor unions, working clubs. Along with it there was a body of Kubano-Chernomorsky regional department of national education and the regional union of "Rabpros" the Prosveshcheniye magazine and the newspaper of working faculty of the Krasnodar teacher's college Rabfakovets. In Rostov there is in 1923 a newspaper of the union of workers of printing production of the USSR (Don regional department) "The Don printer".

From the second half of the 1920th the importance of the press increases. Since April 1, 1926 the body of the North Caucasian regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) "Hammer" became also body of regional council of labor unions. Quickly the trade-union press and on places develops. If by July 1, 1930 in the region there were 29 FZMK printing newspapers, then by their 1932 were already 56 with a circulation of 130,700 pieces. In 1931 printing, wall, large-circulation gazety1 were available to the .neena only at all enterprises, but also in shops, crews. Only in Taganrog and Novorossiysk the number of the wall newspapers published by trade-union organizations grew according to 300 and 105 in 1930 to 630 and 177 in 1931

Regional party committees performed systematic ideological management of editorial offices of newspapers and magazines including trade-union, pointed out the defects of publications and registration, were engaged in shots. Tasks of publications were defined by concrete resolutions of regional committee, for example "About participation of the press of edge in harvest and grain procurement campaigns of June 23, 1931"

Since August, 1930 the central trade-union newspaper Trud organized the representation in the North Caucasian region. On its pages there was a weekly North Caucasian column which was completely devoted to activity of local labor unions.

At a boundary of 1920 - the 1930th rapid development was gained by amateur art creativity of workers. Actively the trade-union organizations participated in its promoting. In the first regional Olympic Games of amateur art (the end of 1931 — the beginning of 1932) which initiator became kraysov-professional, 476 people took part. Directing this work, labor unions considered that it has to go on the way of expansion and strengthening of working and country on-stage performance groups, the art groups of youth developing into theaters of young and country workers (trama and tkoma). The theatrical, art, musical circles which were widespread in the second half of the 1920th in trade-union kulyuchrezhdepiya considerably changed the content of the work. In repertoires of theatrical circles the revolutionary and political subject began to prevail.

Propaganda for socialism, service of economic and political campaigns, sowing, cleaning became a main objective of amateur performances. The maximum of energy was shown by trade-union amateur collectives in fight for bread in 1932/33. 72 circles from trade-union clubs took part in service of a harvesting. They carried out 3.5 thousand performances, having captured about 1 million collective farmers and workers of state farms.

Also actively worked агитационно-художествен-& ny crews of labor unions and in the city, agitating for performance of a promfinplan, mastering the new equipment, decrease in quantity of truancies, destruction of remnants of the past and by that promoting increase in labor and political activity of masses.

Issues of development of the sports movement which was a part of common cultural activity of labor unions and an educational tool organically entered cultural and educational work of labor unions of the studied period also.

The VI All-Union congress of labor unions which took place in the fall 1924 set the task to consider physical culture and sport as a method of unity of workers around the unions. And the resolution of RCP(b) of the Central Committee of July 13, 1925 fixed such approach. In it it was noted that the physical education has to be regarded as "an integral part of general political, cultural education and education". Therefore work on development of physical education should not stand apart and come off the primary political and educational activity of public organizations. Determining its content, the Central Committee emphasized that this work "needs to be considered not only in terms of physical training and improvement..., but also as one of methods of education of masses., and at the same time as means of unity of wide workers and country masses around the professional organizations through which Workers' and Peasants' masses is involved in social and political life" [20]. The sport has to bgg and became Soviet and this algorithm of its existence for long time was fundamental. It bore in itself(himself) the internal strong mobilizing beginning.

Labor unions aimed efforts at the development of really grass-roots sports movement. In the mid-twenties in the North Caucasian region the labor unions increased costs of construction of stadiums, platforms, halls, water stations. In the Don district the stadium of the union of food industry workers, in Novorossiysk - railroad workers and sovtorgsluzhashchy, in Taganrog - the union of STS was constructed. The number of the clubs having platforms for physical education made 104; 77 clubs had football fields; 75 - basketball platforms; 18 - tennis; 9 - shooting shooting galleries; 4 - water stations.

According to 145 clubs, there were 10,213 athletes and 138 circles of physical education, and at FZMK of such circles there were 65. In the summer of 1926 17 allied collectives participated in regional interallied track and field athletics competitions, and in 1927 118 clubs held competitions in physical education.

There is an increase in the status of physical education as fields of activity. At cultural departments of district sovprof the position of the instructor on physical education to whom the leadership in all work on the unions is assigned is established.

Thus, in the 1920th labor unions, having become "driving belts" and performing functions "unusual" for them, did enormous work on "a cultural revolution" in cultural development of masses. At all costs and mistakes in the activity as vospitate-

Kuban state technological university

leu they undertook a considerable share of that of "insistent draft work" which needed to be done to reach a little valid cultural level of a people at large. The analysis of an extensive circle of documents allows to draw a conclusion that the main forms and methods of cultural and educational and educational work of labor unions were under construction on the basis of the party principles: moral substance, political orientation and lack of alternative to Marxism-Leninism. The party unconditionally defined communistic orientation of educational process.

In work of the local trade-union organizations these forms and methods were filled with concrete contents which in the main and main thing were focused on one - increase in the importance of politikovospitatelny actions, formation only of Marxist-Leninist outlook, promotion of solutions of party.


1. History questions. 1989. No. 8. Page 126.
2. G.N. Bondarenko. Participation of labor unions of Kuban and Stavropol Territory in elimination of illiteracy in 1920 - 1925//Izv. AN of the Turkmen SSR. It is gray. societies, science. 1983. No. 2. Page 27-32; R.A. Shipilova. From the history of creation of labor union of workers of art//the Party leadership in activity of public organizations of the intellectuals during socialist construction. L., 1984. Page 39-49; A. Fogi-lev. Stages of a big way (From the history of labor unions of Stavropol Krai)//Stavropol. 1977. No. 3. Page 63-65; etc.
3. V.I. V.I. The II Pauly. SOBR. soch. T. 41. Page 399.
4. The state archive of the Rostov region (further - GARO), t. р - 2287, it. 1, 43, l. 34 about.
5. In the same place, 59, l. 5.
6. In the same place, 54, l. 26.
7. In the same place, 322, l. 44.
8. Messenger of work. 1923. No. 1. Page 52-53.
9. State archive of the Russian Federation (dalee-GARF), t. 5451, op. 16, 756, l. 166.
10. The center of documentation of the contemporary history of Krasnodar Krai (further - CCNI KK), t. 12, op. 1, 85, l. 144.
11. The state archive of Krasnodar Krai (further - GAKK), t. р - 698, op. 1, 12, l. 4.
12. The center of documentation of the contemporary history of the Rostov region (further - CCNI RO), t. 5, op. 1, 97, l. 34.
13. The VIII All-Union congress of labor unions: Stenographist, report. M, 192. Page 464.

- 14. CCNI RO, t. 7, op. 1, 918, l. 5.

15. GARO, t. р - 2287, op. 1, 3410, l. 610.
16. V.I. V.I. The II Half-N of SOBR. soch. T. 12. Page 145.
17. GAKK, t. r-698, op. 1, 6, l. 201.
18. Truth. 1930. On Dec. 16
19. GAKK, f.r-340, op. 1, 2, l. 60.
20. Main resolutions, orders and instructions on questions of the Soviet physical culture and sport. 1917 - 1957 of M., 1959. Page 12-13.

_________________________________________ on February 6, 2003

Jaakkola Anni
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